Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 15th_T2000_Stockholm
Roadside Testing Assessment (ROSITA): a European Union Project on Roadside Drug Testing
Drugs, DUID, roadside testing, urine, saliva, sweat, onsite
Some studies have shown that there is a universally recognised need for the development of a valid, rapid and affordable roadside test for the major drugs. In countries with impairment- type legislation, roadside analysis can confirm the suspicion of the police officer and focus the attention on drugs. In countries with 'per se' legislation, screening devices are crucial for the detection of DUID, before further measures (e.g. blood sampling) can be taken. After a call for proposals from Directorate General 7 (Transport) of the European Union, a consortium of 12 contractors (national toxicology institutes, university departments of legal medicines and manufacturers of onsite drug tests) was selected. The project started in January 1999 and has a duration of 21 months. Work package 1 is a literature survey of drugs and medicines that have a detrimental impact on road users' performance. In work package 2, the roadside drug testing equipment for urine, sweat and saliva were inventoried. In work package 3 the operational,
user and legal requirements for roadside testing equipment were determined with a questionnaire. In work package 4, several devices will be evaluated in 8 countries. The experience gained in the project will allow to make recommendations for the use and further development of roadside drug testing.
Roadside Breathtesting Surveys to Assess the Impact of an Enhanced OWI Enforcement Campaign in British Columbia
Roadside Breathtesting Surveys , OWI Enforcement Campaign, impaired driving, British Columbia
It is apparent that there was a substantial -- and statistically significant -- reduction in the prevalence of driving after drinking behaviour in Kamloops following five months of the enforcement campaign. This decrease is most likely attributable to the intensive enforcement and publicity program that took place during the intervening five months. Awareness of the enhanced enforcement program was certainly high -- 86% of drivers interviewed in the fall knew of the intensive effort to reduce impaired driving and 68% had been through a roadcheck in the past five months.
Room Temperature Influences on the Performance of Some Breath Alcohol Simulators
Alcohol, analysis, breath, calibration, equilibration temperature, simulators
(Poster) Four breath alcohol simulators, Alcotest CU34 (A), Guth 210021 (B), Guth 34C (C), and one modified Guth 34C (D), were examined at different room temperatures and the concentrations of ethanol and water in the simulator effluent were measured. Tests were conducted at room temperatures of 17, 22, and 27 °C. Alcohol solutions were prepared to yield 0.50 mg/L (0.105 g/210 L) at 34.0 °C. Two gas wash bottles were arranged in tandem and charged with the standard ethanol solution and then completely immersed in circulating water at 34.0 °C. This alcohol solution was used to create a reference wet-gas standard. A specially constructed infrared (IR) instrument was used to measure the concentration of ethanol (3.47 11m) and water (2.5711m) in the effluent gases. The solution temperature in each simulator was adjusted as close as possible to 34.0 °C at the room temperature of 22 °C. The results were expressed as the percentage of the reference gas ethanol concentration after correction for ethanol depletion. The following average deviations from target (100%) were obtained for ethanol at room temperatures of 17, 22, and 27 °C. (A) -2.6, -0.4, 0.4; (B) -2.6, -0.7, 0.1; (C) -2.3, -2.0, -1.2; (D) 0.1, 0.1, 0.1. The corresponding average deviations from target values for water vapor were; (A) -5.7, 0.1, 6.4; (B) -20.2, -10.9, 0.9; (C) -15.0, -5.8, 4.9; (D) 0.2, -1.1, 1.5.
Self-Reported Drinking and Driving Practices and Attitudes in Four Countries and Perceptions of Enforcement
Enforcement, laws, alcohol-impaired driving
A telephone survey of 2,251 drivers was conducted to compare self-reported behavior and attitudes regarding alcohol consumption and driving in the United States with Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom. U.S. respondents were less likely to say they drank and reportedly drank smaller quantities. Drivers were most likely to have been checked for alcohol in Australia (82 percent). Respondents supported tough penalties; 45-60 percent thought current penalties not tough enough. Forty-two percent in the United States, 26 percent in Australia, 35 percent in Canada, and 47 percent in the United Kingdom thought police were not doing enough enforcement. Results indicate that there is public tolerance for vigorous enforcement of tough laws and that increased enforcement in the United States and elsewhere would be an acceptable means of addressing the problem of alcohol-impaired driving.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS PREDICTIVE OF DRUG IMPAIRMENT
Drugs and driving, drug impairment, Marijuana, Depressant, Stimulant, Narcotic
A double blind study was performed to evaluate the ability of police officers to detect drug impairments and to identify the type of drug responsible for the impairment, on the basis of observed symptoms and psychophysical measurements of performance. The officers were not allowed to interview the subjects. Results showed that even with this partial information the officers are able to detect drug impairment at better-than-chance levels, but the association between drug ingestion and identification of the specific impairing drug was not very high. Drug identification was best for alprazolam impairment, noticeably poorer for cannabis and codeine impairment, and no better than chance for amphetamine impairment. To improve identification, the officers should always list the two most probable impairing drugs (rather than one), and be more consistent in their use of observed signs and symptoms.
Similarities and Differences in a Series of Longitudinal Studies of the Effectiveness of a School Based Drink Driving Education Program
school based education program, self reported drink driving attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and experiences, Longitudinal Studies, Queensland Australia
In 1988 a comprehensive school based education program to reduce drink driving was introduced statewide. The program was implemented through all schools using a staged entry methodology to enable schools to be randomly allocated over two years to either a control or intervention group. In all over 60,000 grade 10 students (aged 14.5 yrs) were involved in the program during the trial period. The impact of the program has been evaluated on three occasions and differing levels and types of information sought. The first, at the implementation stage, was of a small sample of the control and intervention schools and compared self reported drink driving attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and experiences. The second was undertaken three years later when students had left school and again was concerned with self reported responses to the program. At this evaluation additional data related to licensing and driving experiences and convictions could be added. The third evaluation completed in 1999 is an outcome study that examined the impact of the program on the officially recorded traffic histories of the control and intervention cohorts.
Support services provided during interlock usage and post-interlock repeat DUI: Outcomes and processes
Alcohol; ignition interlock; DUI recidivism; intervention
The companion paper to this one reported on the predictors of (and predicting with) failed BAC tests logged on the interlock recorder during the period the interlock is installed. Interlock offenders in the site that made available a human services adjunctive motivational intervention had significantly fewer fail BAC tests. Overall those with more failed interlock BAC tests were more likely to have post-interlock repeat DUIs. During the 12 months after the interlock has been removed first-time offenders exposed to the intervention had approximately half the number of repeat DUI offenses than those not exposed to the intervention. In the intervention site 1.2% (vs. 2.4% in the non-intervention site) of the first offenders had repeat DUI offenses. This finding is based on an initial 1373 first offenders but with such low reoffense rates it is not yet a statistically significant difference. Preliminary data from 505 multiple offenders has shown no evidence of an intervention effect with this group. In both intervention conditions, multiple
offenders had approximately 3% reoffenses within the first 12 months after the interlock was removed. The research model presumes that the services intervention will affect road safety by improving the motivation of these offenders to separate their drinking and driving.
Swiftness of Adjudication as a Factor in Reducing Drunk Driving
DWI, recidivism, celerity, time to adjudication, plea bargaining, sentencing
If time-to-adjudication operates in a directly causal manner on recidivism the courts may be able to reduce DWI recidivism by reducing the length of time taken to adjudicate DWI offenses. If time-to-adjudication does not operates in a causal manner on recidivism, the observed relationship may be spurious and recidivism may be caused by other factors including, but not limited to, sentencing variations, absence or presence of attorney representation, or offender characteristics. If time-to-adjudication does not operate on recidivism in causal manner, court efforts to shorten the time to adjudication would not have the desired effect in reducing recidivism. However, length of time to adjudication could be used as a predictor of recidivism. As such, courts could tailor sentencing to reflect this higher probability of recidivism. Further research in Minnesota, other states and nations is needed to determine what, if any, other factors affect recidivism when controlling for length of time to adjudication.
Target group segmentation for the prevention and control of drink-driving (enforcement measures)
Driving under the influence, knowledge level, social norms, attitudes, cluster analysis, group
structure, law enforcement
The fact that the level of knowledge in both problematic groups is higher than in the unproblematic group allows the assumption that this variable is not of key importance An indication that the two problematic groups differ in terms of offences and should therefore be treated accordingly could not be found At item level they did not differ in a single case with regard to attitudes, knowledge, etc concerning speeding offences and driving under the influence of drink.
Ten Years Experience of Evidential Breath-Alcohol Testing in Sweden
blood, breath, drunk driving, DWI, Sweden, legal limits
Ten years have elapsed since the Swedish police began to use breath-alcohol testing for evidential purposes. The Intoxilyzer 5000S, a quantitative infrared analyzer, has been the only instrument approved for legal purposes during the past decade. The statutory alcohol concentration limits for driving in Sweden are 0.20 mg/g in blood or 0.10 mg/L in breath. The concentration of alcohol per se is used for prosecution and probable cause and tests of impairment are not necessary. The number of drinking drivers apprehended by the police has decreased appreciably over the past 10 years from about 23,000 in 1989 to 15,000 in 1999. The most common defence argument against the results of evidential breath-alcohol testing concerns the use of various prescription drugs. Other defence tactics include alleged drinking after the offence, problems with the instrument or the operator, presence of interfering substances in breath, illness or disease state such as diabetes or asthma as well as other challenges. The most common interfering volatile substance identified in breath of drunk drivers was acetone derived from the abuse of technical (denatured) alcohol preparations. The mean blood/breath ratio of alcohol in drunk drivers was closer to 2400:1 rather than 2100:1, the value used when setting the per se statute. Evidential breath-alcohol testing has been well received by the media, the police, the prosecutors and the courts despite a 50-year tradition in Sweden of only accepting blood-alcohol concentration as evidence of impaired driving. The Intoxilyzer 5000S has proved to be a reliable instrument for enforcing the low breath alcohol concentration threshold in Sweden of 0.10 mg/L.
Testing for ethanol in alternate specimens
ethanol, blood, breath, urine, saliva
Over than 8 millions blood and breath alcohol determinations are requested each year in France. Blood alcohol concentration best reflects the possible effects of ethanol on the brain and on the capabilityto drive a motor vehicle.That is why blood is the most commonly body fluis tested on living subjects. Alternate specimens (e.g. breath, urine, saliva, sweat, hair) can be proposed to determine ethanol intoxication but all of them are not actually useful. This paper will review the potentialities and the pros and cons of each alternate specimen and is dedicated to traffic law enforcement. For economical and practical reasons breath alcohol determination is systematically performed in France since 1983. The procedures for breath alcohol testing and determination will be explained and the different apparatus reviewed.
The association between drinking habits, socio-economic status and drinking and driving in Stockholm County
drinking and driving; binge drinking; survey; socio-economic status
The aim of this study was to analyse the association between alcohol habits, socio-economic status, and self-reported drinking and driving (DaD) and apprehension for drunk driving (ADD) factors in the general population. The expressions "drunk driving" and "drinking while intoxicated (DWI)" are used, as judicial terms. Material: The study is based on survey data from Stockholm County collected in 1996 on men and women between the ages of 18 and 54, including questions about their drinking habits, alcohol dependence, socio-economic group, and DaD or ADD. A random sample was drawn and 3,064 (64 %) of 4,807 respondents answered. Results: The prevalence of DaD varied by age and was highest in the 25-34 age group, where 17.2 % of women and 36.6 % of men reported DaD. The prevalence increased with increased consumption, frequency of binge drinking, and was high among those with alcohol dependence. However, the great majority of subjects who admitted to DaD did not belong to any of these categories, which supports the preventive paradox theory in the field of DaD. For instance, 93 high consumers and 411 low to moderate consumers reported DaD. At the same time, binge drinking increased the likelihood among low and moderate consumers.
The compact integrated pupillograph CIP (AMTech)- its value on detection of psychophysical disorder caused by drugs
pupillography, pupillometry, saccadic eye movement, drugs, roadside-test
There has been a renaissance of pupillography in Germany since the beginning of the 90s, concerning several subjects of human medicine, e.g. ophthalmology, psychiatry, otolaryngology or pharmacology. Changes of pupil reaction allow an exact interpretation of brain function because of the autonomous innervation of the pupil muscles. E.g., the group around Wilhelm, Tiibingen (Germany), described characteristic pupil oscillations in subjects with sleep apnea (OSAS). Considering the increase of drug influenced drivers, it becomes more and more necessary to create tests to identify drug influenced drivers.
The Contribution of Illness and Drug Treatment to Crash Fatalities in Older Drivers
Illness and Drug Treatment, anticoagulant Warfarin, crash fatalities, Older drivers, Victoria
As the population ages, an increase in medical reviews of drivers suffering from age related conditions may be expected. A study was conducted in order to ascertain whether older drivers were over-represented in crash deaths in Victoria and whether the licensing authority medical review process was aware of them beforehand. Coroner's records for drivers aged over 70 who died in crashes during the years 1996 and 1997 were reviewed. The results are presented. While a minority of drivers involved in fatal accidents were known to the authority, it is possible that many drivers not known to the authority may have been suffering from conditions that could have affected their driving. Many of the drivers were taking drugs that could have affected their driving skills and these may not have been known to their doctors. Although the total numbers were small, the proportionately large number of drivers taking the anticoagulant Warfarin suggests that further studies may be worthwhile.
The Drug Recognition Expert Police Officer: A Response to Drug-Impaired Driving
Drugs, DRE, Drug Recognition Expert, Driving, DUI, DWI, police, LAPD
Law enforcement agencies in thirty-four United States and British Columbia, Canada, rely on Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) officers to apprehend the drug-impaired driver. DREs utilize a systematic and standardized twelve-step procedure to reach three determinations: (1) that the driver is impaired; (2) that the driver is impaired by drugs, rather than suffering from a medical condition that requires intervention; and (3) the category of drug (s) that is causing the impairment. The admissibility of DRE opinion testimony, usually in conjunction with corroborative toxicological analysis, has been upheld in many courts throughout the U.S. The seven DRE drug categories are not based on shared chemical structures, legality, or use if any in treatment of illness or disease. Rather, the categories are based on shared patterns of signs and symptoms. The categories used by DREs are: Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants, Inhalants, Phencyclidine, Cannabis, CNS Stimulants, Hallucinogens, and Narcotic Analgesics. The prevalence of poly-drug use complicates the DRE determinations. This paper will provide an overview of the DRE procedures, DRE drug categories, and the DRE training program.
The Effectiveness of Licence Restriction For Drink Driving Offenders: The Australian Experience
Drivers, Driving Under the Influence, Recidivism, Motor traffic accidents
In many jurisdictions, licence restriction is used as an alternative to full suspension for certain drink driving offenders. However, this may undermine both the specific and general deterrent effect of licence loss, by reducing the perceived certainty and severity of the sanction. To explore this proposition, an analysis was undertaken of the records of almost 22,000 male drivers initially convicted of drink driving during 1988 in Queensland, Australia. At a process level, it was found that licence restriction was relatively common, with 12% of offenders being granted a restricted licence for employment purposes. Contrary to legislative guidelines, these licences were sometimes granted to offenders with a recent history of drink driving. At an outcome level, it was found that the restricted drivers were involved in a similar proportion of alcohol-related crashes, but more non alcohol-related crashes, during the term of the sanction than drivers who had been fully suspended. This is consistent with previous research by the authors indicating that restricted drivers do not commit any more drink driving offences than suspended drivers. Therefore, while full suspension produces greater overall road safety benefits, restricted licences appear no less effective as a specific deterrent to drink driving.
The Effects Of Random Breath Testing Operations and Drink-Driving Publicity On Alcohol-Related Crashes In Rural Areas.
Alcohol-related crash; random breath test; rural area; booze bus; drink-driving; publicity awareness; Adstock; provincial city
Alcohol-related crashes occurring on major and minor roads in rural areas of Victoria, a south-east state of Australia, were analysed. An alcohol-related crash is one that occurs during high alcohol times (HAH) of the week - those times when illegal drink-driving is more likely to occur. The effects on crashes of different styles of RBT operations, and the interactions of these effects with levels of drink-driving publicity awareness were examined. RBT operations are those involving the random breath testing (RBT) of drivers' blood alcohol levels. The style of operation is defined by the type of Police vehicle used in each RBT session.
The Effects Of Lowering Legal Blood Alcohol Limits: A Review
Impaired driving, lower legal blood alcohol limits, effectiveness
Evidence on the impact of lowering the legal BAC limits on traffic outcomes is examined. In most jurisdictions where an evaluation of lowered legal limit has been conducted, some beneficial effects on traffic safety measures have been reported. These effects were in some cases relatively small, and in other cases temporary. Available evidence suggests that these beneficial effects were due to general deterrence and not restricted only to groups of drivers specifically affected by the legal change.
The Efficacy of a Publicity Campaign Promoting the Use of Alternative Transportation to Prevent Driving While Intoxicated
Publicity Campaign, Driving While Intoxicated, DWI Prevention, Designated Drivers, Safe Rides.
(Poster) Although the use of publicity campaigns in community prevention to reduce driving while intoxicated (DWI), either alone or in combination with other program elements, is common, studies of exposure to these campaigns are relatively rare. This is due in part to the cost and difficulty of collecting data about exposure from the target population (Flay and Cook, 1989). This paper presents findings from a 5-year NIAAA-funded study of alternative transportation as a means of reducing DWI. This prevention program used a publicity campaign that encouraged adults to serve as designated drivers (DDs), and to use DDs and safe rides (free taxi rides for drinking drivers) as alternatives to DWI and to riding with intoxicated drivers (RID). Data from a telephone survey of a representative sample of drinkers address four critical questions about community-based publicity campaigns to prevent DWI. First, what proportion of the target population did the campaign reach and at what cost? Second, which segments of the population, as defined by demographic and by drinking variables (e.g., frequency of barroom drinking), were reached? Third, to what extent did the campaign reach drinkers at high-risk for DWI? Fourth, which publicity methods reached the greatest proportion of the target population?
Study findings can guide the design of future publicity efforts to reduce DWI, and may help in designing campaigns to address other risk behaviors.
The Elaboration of the New 'per se' Legislation on Drugs and Driving in Belgium
Drugs; DUID; legislation; law; analytical cut-offs; parliament
In response to the Belgian Toxicology and Trauma Study (BTTS), the government decided to enact a new law on driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). A first proposal (forbidding to drive a vehicle if impairing substances are detectable by toxicological analysis, without specific substances nor cut-offs) was considered unconstitutional by the State Council: the list of substances, analytical methods and cut-offs should be specified in the law. A scientific committee was created and a report written on the effects of drugs on driving, drug concentrations in body fluids, and the detection methods. A compromise was found between the scientific recommendations and the political possibilities. A second project of law was then drafted with a three-step process: (a) assessment of external signs of the presence of drugs by a standardized test battery, (b) on-site immunoassay for amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine metabolites or opiates in urine and (c) blood sampling by a physician for GC/MS analysis with the following analytical cutoffs: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) 2 ng/mL, free morphine 20 ng/mL, amphetamine, MDMA, MDEA, MBDB, benzoylecgonine or cocaine 50 ng/mL. This was discussed in both houses of parliament, with a hearing in the parliamentary commission. The law was adopted unanimously by both houses of parliament, and published in March 1999.