Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 15th_T2000_Stockholm
Perspectives for the detection of cannabis in breath
Breath, cannabis, roadside test, tetrahydrocannabinol
Cannabis is the most frequently detected drug in many epidemiological studies on drugs and driving in Europe: 10% (median of 10 studies) of injured drivers and 7.6% of killed drivers are positive. The possibility of detecting cannabis in breath would greatly simplify controls in drivers, both for epidemiological studies and law enforcement.
PHARMACOLOGICAL CRITERIA TO USE ALTERNATIVE SPECIMENS FOR DUI CONTROLS
Biological specimens, toxicology, pharmacokinetic, analysis, drugs
It is generally accepted that chemical testing of biological fluids is the most objective means of diagnosis of drug use. The presence of a drug analyte in a biological specimen can be used to document exposure. The standard in drug testing is the immunoassay screen, followed by the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric confirmation conducted on a urine sample. In recent years, remarkable advances in sensitive analytical techniques have enabled the analysis of drugs in unconventional biological specimens such as saliva or sweat. The advantages of these samples over traditional media, like urine and blood, are obvious collection is almost non- invasive, relatively easy to perform, and in forensic situations it may be achieved under close supervision of law enforcement officers to prevent adulteration or substitution.
Place of sweat in drugs of abuse testing
sweat in drugs of abuse testing, Drugwipe test, cannabis tests, amphetamine devices, Munich Germany
The Drugwipe test allows an evaluation of the results within minutes and can lead to a momentary decision whether blood sample have to be taken or not. Separate Drugwipe devices are available of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines and cannabinoids. The tests for opiates and cocaine were introduced to routine work by the police in Baden-Wiirttemberg (South Germany) after a successful study. The cannabis tests showed a poor reliability. A preliminary study with the amphetamine devices promises a good sensitivity and reliability, especially for ecstasy. As the tests are assuming cleanliness of the skin and cannot exclude other environmental contamination, the results can only lead to a certain suspicion and have to be confirmed by additional examination before any juridical consequences.
Pompidou Group project on road traffic and illicit drugs: background and future prospects
Pompidou Group project, road traffic and illicit drugs, categorisation system, impairing medicinal drug, Europe
The prevention of driving under the influence of licit drugs that significantly impair driving performance should be encouraged by promoting a categorisation system allowing physicians and pharmacists to respectively prescribe and dispense the least impairing medicinal drug in each therapeutic class. This effort should be undertaken on a European level.
Predictive Models of BAC among Nighttime Drivers
roadside surveys, drinking driving, driver characteristics
The purpose of the study was to determine the combination of factors which explain and classify the BAC of drivers encountered in a nighttime roadside survey conducted in the Spring and Fall of 1998 in British Columbia. Implications for detecting impaired drivers on the road are discussed.
Predictors of failed interlock BAC tests and using failed BAC tests to predict post-interlock repeat DUis
Alcohol, Ignition Interlock, BAC, DUI, intervention
Since 1995, DUI offenders assigned to the interlock have been under study to assess the impact of a four-part program of supportive guidance in Alberta, Canada. The program combines motivational interviewing with education, planning and referrals. The purpose of the program is to attempt to slow the expected rate of increase in DUI re-offenses once the interlock is removed. Success is measured by lower repeat DUI after the interlock is removed. There are two primary data sources to document an impact of supplemental services: the interlock's internal event recorder and the driving record. Over 2300 interlock offenders taking a median of more than 2000 breath tests, were studied during the full period the interlock was installed. The proportion of warn (i.e., BAC .02-.039% = 20-39 mg/dl) and fail (i.e., BAC 3.04% = 340 mg/dl) violations declined by over 50% during the course of the installed period.
Predictors of Re-offence among Australian Drink Drivers
Drink driving, re-offence rates, cohort study, survival analysis, risk factors, traffic
As part of the evaluation of a drink driver rehabilitation program in a non-metropolitan area of Queensland we collected retrospective and prospective information on close to 900 drink drivers who undertook the program and over 800 contemporaneous drink driving offenders from the same area who did not. The data collected included details of the index drink driving offence, traffic and criminal histories for 5 years prior to the index court hearing and subsequent criminal and drink driving offences. Over 200 drink driving re-offences were committed by the cohort during the follow-up period, which averaged 34 months, with a range of 15 to 57 months. Using a failure-time model of time to re-offence, including proportional hazards modelling, independent predictors of re-offence among program participants and were identified. These include previous drink driving, unlicensed or dangerous driving, and a history of criminal convictions of any type.
PRESENCE OF ALCOHOL IN CROATIAN ROAD TRAFFIC
intoxicated drivers, critical leve, random samples, Croatian roads, traffic accidents, Croatia
The research has established that the average portion of intoxicated drivers on Croatian roads is 4.4%, and that the average concentration of alcohol in such drivers is 1.13 per thousand, which is higher than the "critical level" of intoxication - 1.1 per thousand. The portion of intoxicated drivers exceeding the critical concentration is 43.2%. When compared to the situation three years ago, the following should be established for the current situation: The portion of intoxicated has decreased in these three years for one third, or more precisely for 37%; The average concentration of alcohol in intoxicated drivers is bigger when compared with the situation three years ago for 12%; (from 1.01 per thousand to 1.13 per thousand);
Preventing Drinking and Driving on Campus: The College and University Drinking and Driving Prevention Awards Program
Drinking and Driving Prevention Program, social context of alcohol and drinking and driving, campus programs, USA
(Poster) Data consistently show that levels of alcohol problems at colleges and universities are dangerously high and in need of innovative solutions. In response, the Automobile Club of Southern California and the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention devised the annual College and University Drinking and Driving Prevention Awards Program to support and promote development of innovative model programs. The program, operating in six western US states encompassing nearly one-fourth of the US population, identifies and rewards promising programs and stimulates interest in alcohol-impaired driving prevention programs for college students. This paper examines the social context of alcohol and drinking and driving problems on campus and describes campus programs providing innovative solutions in 1997-1999, the program's first years. Elements of these programs that can improve campus drinking and driving programs are then discussed.
Prevention at the turn of the millennium: After 50 years of ICADTS
DUI, impaired driving, alcohol policy, peer intervention, server intervention, designated driver,
(Plenary) This paper presents a model that attempts to integrate driving-under-the-influence (DUI) prevention programs. It gives a brief review of the status of environmental prevention as we enter the 21st century. Further, it notes the significance of alcohol sales and transportation policies for safety researchers. Not covered are educational and treatment programs for special groups of operators such as DUI offenders and novice drivers.
Racial/Ethnic Patterns among Pedestrian-Alcohol Crash Fatalities
pedestrian, race, ethnicity, alcohol, motor vehicle crash
Pedestrians who had been drinking make up about half of all U.S. adult (ages 15+) pedestrian/motor vehicle crash fatalities. About one-third of adult pedestrian fatalities are at ACs of .15% or higher. The present study examined regional differences across the U.S. in these fatalities, and whether specific racial or ethnic groups, by age and gender, are over-represented. Data from the U.S.D.O.T. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) were linked with the Multiple Cause of Death file, Centers for Disease Control, and with additional ethnic and racial data provided by seven states. Analysis identified three groups with proportionally greater pedestrian-alcohol fatality risk: Native Americans; older black adults; and Hispanic males. Focus groups discussed the unique problems and cultural sensitivities of each identified group.
Ratings of Intoxication and Driving Impairment, by Gender and Drinking Category
Alcohol, intoxication, driving, drinking category, gender
The relationships of drinkers' ratings of intoxication and driving impairment were examined in an alcohol experiment with 48 men and women, ages 21 - 54 years, who were light, moderate, and heavy drinkers. At 0.00% to 0.125% blood alcohol concentrations, subjects rated their intoxication and ability to drive with100 mm rating scales. An additional measure, a ratings index, was created to adjust each measurement by the BAC associated with it. The ratings differed by gender and drinking category.
Reactions of pharmaceutical companies to the introduction of a categorisation system
Medicines and driving, categorisation, pharmaceutical companies
In 1999 an information and prevention campaign was launched in Belgium to inform health professionals and the general public about the possible influence of medicines on driving abilities. This campaign was based on a scientific report containing literature data of 179 medicines with categorisation in 7 classes according to the impairing effects. The preliminary report was submitted to the concerned pharmaceutical companies to inform them of the initiative. This contribution describes the reactions of the co-ordinating association of the medicine industry and the individual companies.
Recidivism among suspected drugged drivers in Norway with benzodiazepine detection
Drugged driving, benzodiazepine detection, repeat offences
During 1995, 3343 drivers were apprehended by the police in Norway due to the suspicion of influence by drugs. Benzodiazepines (BZD) which represented some of the most frequent detected drugs, were found in approximately 30% of the cases (n=1051), representing 14% (n=150) female and 86% (n=901) male drivers. In 8% of the cases (n=82), one BZD only was detected. The blood drug concentrations in most of these cases were above therapeutic levels. For the rest of the cases, one or more BZD were combined with illegal drug(s) (73%), other prescribed drugs (10%), or alcohol (15%). The frequencies of BZD detected among drivers from different Norwegian counties, correlated with BZD prescriptions from the same area. 62% (n=541) of the drivers had been arrested earlier for the same reason, when followed retrospectively for 11 years, representing 5,6 cases per rearrested driver. Alcohol was most frequently detected for those arrested for the first time before 1992, while BZD or illegal drugs were most frequently found for those with the first arrest during 1992 - 1995. Our study shows that apprehended drivers using BZDs are mainly represented by drug abusers, combining prescribed and illegal drugs and/or alcohol. A treatment program or other reactions, are thus necessary in addition to fines, prison penalty and suspension of driving licence.
Reducing Youthful Drinking and Driving: The Role of Controlling Alcohol Access
alcohol policy, alcohol access, underage drinking
Considerable progress has been made in recent years to reduce impaired driving crashes among young drivers. In the United States, much of this progress has been associated with reducing access to alcohol by young people. This paper will discuss some of the basic components that have contributed to this reduction in access: • Reduced alcohol availability to youth in the form of a uniform minimum purchase age of 21 and improvements in enforcement of minimum purchase age laws; • Changes in alcohol availability in general, in the form of price increases and controls on outlet location and conditions of sale; and • Expressions of norms against youthful drinking, including such things as controls on marketing and community sponsorship of alcohol-free events.
Rehabilitation of the drinking driver - the past, the present and the future
traffic safety, drinking driver, recidivism, DWI drivers, Rehabilitation of the drinking driver
(Plenary) One of the major traffic safety problems has always been an extremely high risk potential of the drinking driver combined with an enhanced danger of recidivism; the loss of mobility for the individual driver has become a problem in most civilized societies and has led to a variety of approaches to re-integrate DWI drivers into mobile society. This paper attempts to summarize some of the developments in rehabilitation. The main focus is not to list the relevant and most important research in this field, but facilitate an overall view and orientation and suggest a number of problems to be solved in the future.
Review of European Investigations of Illicit Drug Prevalence in Road Traffic
European survey; illicit drugs; prevalence; traffic
This paper will summarise the literature on the prevalence of illicit drugs in road traffic in different European countries. Although a total of 23 studies published in the time period 1990-1998 were collected, only four large scale studies have been discussed in more detail. The results of these studies are not expected to completely reflect the present situation in different countries, but will indicate the scale of the magnitude of the problem in the driver populations involved in these studies both for illicit and licit drugs. It will be discussed why cross-national comparisons are impossible due to different approaches to the scope of the investigations (focus on particular driver populations), sample collection and data collection. The results of the four large scale studies indicate that cannabis and opiates are the most frequently detected drugs (less than 1% in the general driver population, and less than 7.5% in collision-involved drivers). The prevalence of licit drugs such as benzodiazepines (tranquillizers, hypnotics) is significantly higher than for illicit drugs. Therefore, it has been stressed that the contribution of medicinal drugs to the overall problem of drugs and driving can not be ignored when discussing illicit drugs and road traffic.
RISK PERCEPTION AND RISK-TAKING IN RELATION TO DRINK-DRIVING FREQUENCY
Drink-driving, driver characteristics, risk-taking, risk perception
The reported frequency of driving when over the legal limit within a sample of over I,400 British drivers was examined in relation to biographical variables, driver self-perceptions, risk perceptions and reported risk-taking experiences. Self-completion questionnaire surveys were undertaken yielding responses from 800 drivers randomly sampled from a national database of licensed drivers, 250 culpable accident involved drivers identified through police records and a further 400 drivers sampled locally to the accident group. Just over 20% of the variability in drink-driving frequency was predicted. Higher drink-driving frequency was significantly associated with younger male drivers, those driving less miles per week and those with previous accident experience. In addition to the biographical variables, lower drink-driving risk perceptions and self-perceptions of carelessness and irritability were significantly associated with more frequent drink-driving. Suggestions for the continued development of driver education and training programmes are made, highlighting opportunities in the recent UK offender training initiatives.
Road-side drug screening using saliva from drivers suspected to be influenced
ROSITA-project, drug screening, drivers, saliva, urine
To facilitate the detection of drugged driving, devices designed for road-side drug screening in saliva, have been developed. Comparison of the various detection systems and devices, have been included in the European ROSITA (Road Side Testing Assessment) project. In the Norwegian part of the ROSITA project, two different devices designed for saliva have been tested on approximately 450 samples, to detect the following drugs: Amphetamines and opiates (RapiScanR, DrugwipeR), ecstasy, cannabinoids and benzodiazepines (RapiScanR). After saliva prescreening, mainly performed roadside by the police, blood and urine samples have been collected for immunological and chromatographic analyses performed at the National Institute of Forensic Toxicology, for comparison with saliva prescreening results. For a number of drivers (n=50), saliva samples have been analysed by chromatographic methods for drug quantification. The final conclusion will include the evaluation of the devices made by the police with respect to handling, recording of test results and use of time. Status per January 2000: The testing period is now running at the different police districts, using the different devices and will continue until April, 2000.
Road-side survey for drunken driving. The Finnish R-study over 20 years
Road-side survey, drunken driving, risk assessment, consumption of alcoholic beverages, driving event, Finland
The long-term road-side surveys show that the number of drunken drivers in normal traffic is quite low in Finland in comparison to many other countries. It is of great interest to see the trend in the new millennium because the ever time lowest figures for drunken drivers in Helsinki and the surrounding area (0.19 percent) and in the whole country (0.16 percent) were recorded in 1999. Demographic characteristics, driver's own risk assessment to be detected, consumption of alcoholic beverages, driving event, etc. have been questioned in road-side surveys. By comparing the data of the R-study and the official statistics of drunken drivers it is apparent that only a very small number of all drunken drivers comes to the knowledge of police.