Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 15th_T2000_Stockholm
Lowering the BAC Limit: A Canadian Perspective
BAC Limit, impaired driving legislation, alcohol-crash problem, Canada
The selection of a per se BAC limit for drivers has often been, and continues to be, a contentious and inherently political issue. In Canada, the House of Commons Standing Committee on Justice and Human Rights recently considered changes to federal impaired driving legislation, including a reduction in the per se BAC limit from 80 mg% to 50 mg%. This paper provides a brief history of per se laws in Canada, an examination of the strength of the research evidence on lowering the per se BAC limit, and a discussion of why lower BAC limits have not been more effective in reducing the alcohol-crash problem.
Lowering The Legal BAC Limit Should Be Encouraged In The USA As An International Evidence Shows It Saves Lives And Resources
Legal BAC Limit, relative risk of injury or death, drinking and driving policy,road crashes, USA
The literature with ample scientific studies on the relationship between impairment of driving skills and BAC exists and on these findings alone, one might conclude that the statutory Legal BAC limit for driving in USA should be reduce Since lowering the legal BAC limit has produced promising results and sustained declines internationally has not been adopted in this country Because in USA the legal BAC limit is so indulgent, it is often erroneously believed that one may drive upto a BAC of lOOmgllOOml, overlooking the fact that driving is impaired at lower BAC In this sense high legal BAC limit may influence people to make bad estimates of their relative risk of injury or death while driving It is emphasized that better drinking and driving policy designs and enforcement decisions need to be hinge on the scientific evidence However, it seems that when dealing with this sensitive issue policy makers usually yield to the pressure or consideration of the current political environment rather than scientific evidence
Mandated Server Training: Barriers To Effectiveness As Reported By Servers
Server-intervention; alcohol-service; server-liability; alcohol-impaired; intoxicated
Project SIRVE (Server Intervention Research, Verification, and Education) recently completed a comprehensive evaluation of the New Mexico Alcohol Server Education Act. The Act mandated that every seller or server of alcoholic beverages in the state complete a program based on a state-approved curriculum taught by approved schools and instructors. The goals of Project SIRVE were (1) to identify those factors which facilitated or obstructed its ability to change server behavior, and (2) to evaluate the impact of the law on serving practices within New Mexico.
Marijuana use and impaired driving behavior among adolescents in Pinellas County, Florida
Marijuana, impaired driving, adolescent drug use, risk behavior, driving under the influence
An objective of the Cannabis Youth Treatment Study is to increase the level of awareness regarding marijuana use among adolescents and its consequences. Marijuana is the illegal drug most frequently abused by adolescents in the United States. Since it is often combined with alcohol, it is believed to be one of the major contributing factors in reckless/impaired driving behavior of adolescents. Based on preliminary data, study adolescents, between 12 and 18 years old, reported using alcohol an average of 7.4 days out of the past 90 days. Yet, study participants used marijuana an average of 27 days out of the past 90 days. While 61% reported using alcohol and marijuana in a car, 22% responded "yes" to having driven a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or marijuana. These adolescents reported having received an average of 2.6 tickets for minor traffic violations and being arrested and charged with a crime an average of 2.4 times. This data is further confirmed by the 1998 Prevalence of Substance Use Among Pinellas County Students study and corresponding national data. This information addresses the public health issue that few law enforcement officers, parents and public health professionals associate adolescent reckless driving behavior with marijuana use and impairment.
ME OFFICER?' PERCEPTIONS OF THE LINKS
BETWEEN ALCOHOL AND DRIVING.
drink-driving; alcohol; driving
(Poster) In depth interviews with 48 convicted male drinking drivers, all drinking 50+ units per week, reveals strong perceptions against drink driving. Many have been exposed to strong parental attitudes against drink driving and the culture of the young is against it. Yet the majority never gave the matter much thought because their knowledge of alcohol, the limits and the law is so uncertain that personal state is the only measure. Some also perceive the law, the measurement of BAC and the elimination of alcohol to be imprecise and police practice so predictable as to be not worth consideration. When added to inexact personal definitions of both drinking and driving it is unsurprising that so many fall foul of a law the majority desire to uphold.
Medicinal Drugs and Driving: Application of a Categorisation System by Community Pharmacists
Medicinal drugs; driving; categorisation system; dispensing guidelines; pharmacy practice
The objective of this paper is to describe an approach for implementing information on impairing properties of medicinal drugs on driving focused on dispensing community pharmacists in the Netherlands. Present experiences in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands indicate that a categorisation system for medicinal drugs affecting driving performance can be used to sensitise health care professionals and the public. Data from experimental research show that within one therapeutic class of psychotropic drugs extremes exist at both ends: the least impairing or relatively safe ones and the most impairing drugs. Application of this knowledge could be facilitated by improving package inserts and existing warning systems. However, health authorities responsible for market authorisation of medicinal drugs and pharmaceutical manufacturers do not focus their attention on the impact of present warning systems on patients' attitudes towards driving if these patients use impairing medicinal drugs. Therefore other partners in health care need to be identified for participating in activities to improve warning systems. One group who is interested are community pharmacists, who develop more patient oriented pharmaceutical care in most European countries, Australia and the USA. Application of present knowledge for prescribing and dispensing the least impairing medicinal drugs to patients who drive is a first step in solving the drugs and driving problem with psychotropic medications. This paper will describe a demonstration project in which community pharmacists implement prescribing and dispensing guidelines by application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in their dispensing practices.
Medicinal drugs and driving: European experience with dissemination and information to physicians, pharmacists, patients and the public.
Medicinal drugs; Road safety; Informative campaigns; Education; Patients; General public
In the last few years informative campaigns concerning medicinal drugs and driving have been carried out in several European Union countries. The aim of this article is to take a look at these campaigns and our own experience with a view to analysing the points that should be highlighted in them, the main types of drugs which affect driving, advice to patient-drivers, and, finally, giving some examples of campaigns undertaken in these last years. Of course, the groups concerned, professionals - physicians and pharmacists -, patients, the public in general, will determine the characteristics of what to include.
Misuse of Ecstasy" and Participation in Traffic Evaluation of Case Data and Legal Basis of Punishment
Ecstasy - toxicological analysis - participation in traffic - traffic safety
All analyses of blood and urine samples with positive results for "Ecstasy" in the years 1994 to 1997 (analysed at our Institute) were collected. The circumstances of asservation were re- searched with the help of files from the investigations in order to determine whether there was active participation on the roads or traffic offences. All cases with active participation in traffic were selected. Items as age and gender, kind and time of mobility, reason for police control, documentation of conspicuous behaviour and all identified drugs were listed. The survey is based on police reports, traffic offence charges, so called "Torkelbogen" (police of- ficer's description of remarkable behaviour concerning drug or alcohol use), the physician's report and on the results of the toxicological analyses.
Monitoring and Evaluating the Effects of Legislation to Combat Drinking and Driving in Ontario, Canada
Alcohol; criminal justice, highway safety, motor traffic accidents
Between 1996 and 1998, the government of the province of Ontario, Canada, introduced comprehensive legislation to improve road safety. Several measures in that legislation were designed to reduce drinking and driving. They were complementary to laws contained in the federal Criminal Code of Canada and existing provincial legislation. Before implementing a 90 day Administrative Driver's Licence Suspension in November 29, 1996, a committee of representatives from several provincial government ministries was formed. Its purpose is to monitor and evaluate both road safety and operational activities associated with this and other measures to combat drinking and driving.
Mortality among drugged drivers in Norway
Mortality among drugged drivers, driving under the influence of alcohol, female drugged drives,fatal poisoning, Norway
The Norwegian Road Traffic Act prohibits driving under the influence of alcohol and other drugs. It has been found that a large proportion of the arrested drugged drivers are repeat offenders and probably drug abusers. The purpose of this investigation was to find the average mortality among drugged drivers over a period of 42 months subsequent to apprehension. The National Institute of Forensic Toxicology in Oslo receives blood samples from all suspected drugged drivers in Norway. Drivers between 20 and 39 years old providing samples positive for drugs other than alcohol in 1992 (n= 930) were selected for this study. The mortality for the whole group was studied. 64 persons of the selected drugged drivers died during the follow-up period, 6 female and 58 male. The relative risk of death for the female drugged drives was 31 times higher than for the population in general, while it was about 21 times higher for male drugged drivers. The most prevalent causes of death were fatal poisoning/overdoses, accidents and suicides. The results support the assumption that a large proportion of apprehended drugged drivers are drug abusers, and rise the question for alternative strategies for treatment of this driver groups.
Multiple DUI offenders in prison: A qualitative perspective
Driving under the influence; incarceration; treatment planning, psychopathology, alcohol
drinking patterns, polydrug abuse
(Poster) As a result of recent legislation, habitual DUI offenders are sentenced to prison in the State of Ohio (USA). This paper describes how DUI offenders perceive their incarceration and what led to their imprisonment. The paper focuses on history of alcohol and drug use, history of DUI offenses, and attitudes toward drug/alcohol abuse treatment. The analysis is based on qualitative interviews conducted with 12 white men in the fall of 1998. The average age was 33.1. All interviews were audio-taped (after receiving informed consent), transcribed and verified. Folio Views 4.11, a text management software, was used to code the transcripts for major themes. The majority of the participants believed that earlier interventions might have helped them avoid subsequent DUI offenses. Most people felt that their incarceration was unjust and disabled them from providing for their families. About one third believed they would continue to drink alcohol upon their release, but would take special precautions to avoid driving while impaired. Participants' recommendations for what should be included in a prison-based drug and alcohol abuse treatment program are discussed.
National Evaluation of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Program: Design and Baseline Data
Alcohol Drinking; Adolescence; Legislation and Jurisprudence; Prevention and Control; Accidents, Traffic; Program Evaluation.
The largest federal initiative focused on underage drinking was launched by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in 1998. $75 million has been appropriated to support this effort, now known as the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Program. Each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia has received significant funding under this program to support state and local efforts to enforce laws related to alcohol use by underage persons and to prevent underage drinking.
National Standards, International Standards and Evidential Breath Analysis in Australia
National Standards, International Standards, Evidential Breath Analysis, Australia
It is expected that future breath analysis legislation in Australia will insist that evidential breath analysis instruments comply with an Australian Standard. These instruments will have to go through a rigorous testing and verification procedure before they would be certified for use in law enforcement. As matters stand at present the standard of evidential breath analysis is very high and there is virtually no risk of an instrument over reading the true blood alcohol concentration of the subject. This ensures that by the use of evidential breath analysis no person will be unfairly convicted of driving with a blood alcohol concentration which is lower than the reading recorded on the instrument.
New Australian Scientific Behavioural Tests and Education Programs for Drug Impaired Driving Programs
Accidents, countermeasures, education, enforcement, impaired driving, risk-taking.
A new approach to reducing the road trauma caused by drug impaired drivers is being developed in Victoria. A key element of this is a new Impaired Driver Enforcement Program. The Police training and education sections of this program will be delivered using computer based self-paced learning techniques. This presentation highlights the new CD-Rom "Impaired Driver Enforcement Program" software. This software provide education on the drugs that impair drivers, plus all the elements of the two new impairment test that the police will administer, educational administration tools and workbooks.
On the frequent detection of drugged driving in Norway
Drugged drivers, drug detection, Norway
Drugged driving (DD) is detected frequently among Norwegian drivers, at a relative rate which is probably the highest in Europe. The Norwegian Road Traffic Act against DD requires documentation of "influence" (impairment), which during last 10-15 years has been developed into a system of taking a blood sample (by force if needed) on due suspicion, accompanied by a clinical examination by a police physician, analysis of all blood samples in one national institute with standardized (broad) screening and confirmation analyses, and reporting of interpreted quantitative results. Further key points are the use of written expert statements based on the results of the clinical examination and drug analysis, and the acceptance by the courts of such statements. The drugs most frequently detected the last years are THC, amphetamine and benzodiazepines, the latter usually in concentrations above therapeutic levels. In most cases the DD suspects appear to represent drug abusers with a high rate of recidivism to DD. Accordingly
other countries with drug abuse problems comparable to Norway, might have a marked upward potential for detection of DD. Points of importance for the frequent detection are ample use of roadside breath alcohol screening, low thresholds for requesting blood sampling and clinical examination shortly after the driving episode and the courts' acceptance of expert witness statements integrating analytical and clinical results with general knowledge about the drugs in question.
On-Site Drug Detection Device Field Test
Drugs and driving, alcohol, highway safety, drug testing, police enforcement
This NHTSA-sponsored study reports the findings of a field evaluation of five on-site drug screening devices that were used by law enforcement to screen for illicit drugs among drivers suspected of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol or other drugs. In two major U.S. jurisdictions (Nassau County, New York and Houston, Texas), five of the leading on-site devices were field-tested on 800 drivers apprehended for suspicion of DUI. Each urine specimen collected from an arrestee was tested with all five on-site devices; drug positive specimens and a sample of drug negatives were laboratory confirmed by GC/MS. Police officers rated the devices on five dimensions. Field test results included: (1) the number of drug positives detected by each device across the five major drugs of abuse; (2) number of discrepancies among the five on-site devices and between the devices and the GC/MS confirmations; and (3) mean officer ratings for each device. Implications for the use of on-site devices for assessing illicit drug use by drivers are discussed.
On-site Testing for Drugs of Abuse: Methodology, First Results and Experiences of the Police (WP4 of the ROSITA-project)
Roadside drug testing, DUID, Drugs of Abuse, European project, ROSITA
In the context of the European project ROSITA, the Institut of Legal Medicine Homburg/Saar is co-operating with the traffic police of Saarland a federal state of Germany, in order to assess different roadside drug tests for their functionality and reliability in traffic controls, and for their analytical force of evidence. Apart the explanation of the control policy of the traffic police to check for DUID (including the control systems, how to gain evidence for actual drug use, usual signs of impairment and behaviour etc.), we would like to present the so far tested versions of devices in the Saarland within the project ROSITA, the tested numbers of samples, arisen problems and the analytical results.
Only sometimes do the best laid plans go awry: Investigating the relationship between drinking intentions and drinking behavior
Alcohol drinking patterns; driving under the influence; binge drinking
Episodes of binge drinking often precede incidences of drunk driving. The research described below examined the relationship between the drinking plans that individuals made before visiting bars and their blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) upon return. Specific focus was placed on factors that might moderate the relationship between drinking plans and behavior. Of particular interest were those who consumed more alcohol than they anticipated. Participants included 953 United States residents sampled crossing into, and returning from, bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. Data on drinking intentions and drinking history were collected from participants as they entered Tijuana. BACs and other indicators of drinking behavior were collected upon their return. Those driving home intended to, and in fact appeared to, succeed in drinking less. Factors that significantly moderated that relationship between drinking plans and drinking behavior are discussed. Both gender and binge-drinking history were determined to be important factors in determining the correspondence between intentions and actions.
Operation Safe Crossing: Using science within a community intervention
Underage drivers; binge drinking; community programs; national borders; DUI enforcement; inJuries
This paper describes the use of research data in managing and conducting a large drunk-driving enforcement program at the U.S./Mexican border to reduce the number of youths crossing the border to drink in Tijuana. Data from a border breath-test survey were used to dramatize the problem and gain public support for action. The data were also used to help design the enforcement effort and measure progress in reducing the cross-border drinking problem. Analysis of just less than 3 years of data involving more than 2 million pedestrians returning from Tijuana indicated that this effort reduced the number of late night crossers by 26%.
Operational, user and legal requirements across EU member states for roadside drug testing equipment within the EU project ROSITA
Roadside drug testing, DUID, Drugs of Abuse, European project, ROSITA
To gain a representative overview of their legal, user and operational requirements concerning Driving under the Influence of Drugs (DUID), within the EU project ROSITA a questionnaire was designed and distributed to 21 European countries (15 EU countries, 6 not- EU countries) to be answered by forensic experts with the help of suitable representatives of the police force according to each country. In total, 26 completed questionnaires from 19 different countries were returned. Results: Legal provisions on DUID are in force in all 19 countries, but drug test devices are used in police routine very rarely; in few countries the application is prohibited by regulations, but as main reasons for non-use their low level of validation or unavailability were given. The preferred drug test configuration is a single-use, multi-parameter test, which is able to provide a clear, unambigious test result on cannabis, benzodiazepines, amphetamines, cocaine, opiates within 5 minutes. Preferred test specimen for roadside testing is saliva, due to its good
availability, the low invasiveness of sampling and the good correlation with impairment. Sweat was considered as an acceptable alternative to saliva.