Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 15th_T2000_Stockholm
High SAC-drivers - Austrian experience with mandatory psychological measures.
Driver; diagnostics, DUI-offenders, rehabilitation
In August 1997 new legal measures concerning alcohol offenders have been introduced. Any offender who is caught with more then 0,12 percent BAC has to undergo a psychological driver improvement measure. Any offender who is caught with more then 0,16 percent BAC additionally has to undergo a psychological and a medical examination. With the lowering of the alcohol limit to 0.05 percent BAC (in January 1998) enforcement increased a lot. Thus for the following months and years a lot of information about the high BAC-drivers has been collected. This paper will present information based those psychological examinations conducted at the Austrian Road Safety Board, which currently catches hold of the majority of drivers who have to undergo a psychological examination. Data on trip related issues, individual histories of alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, personality factors, social and professional background, psycho-physiological- performance are available as well as data on the judgement by the psychologist including diagnosis of problems and recommendations. This huge data set allows to test for several hypothesis. Especially the diagnostic criteria in psychological examination will be presented and discussed.
HOW COME SENSIBLE PEOPLE DRIVE AFTER DRINKING?
drink drivers, BAC limit, multiple convictions, alcohol education, public policy
In-depth interviews with 48 male convicted drink drivers, 54.2% with multiple convictions, gave 80 offences to analyse. For 28.75% conviction is a 'fair cop' but for many of these there is no accurate knowledge of the link between alcohol intake and BAC. When this is allied to a further 21.25% who would have behaved differently had they had sound alcohol information it points to the importance of improving alcohol education for all drivers. A further 17.5% were going through emotional times in which they were unable to think straight and a further 5% with minds pre-occupied took decisions to drive which they may not otherwise have done. A further 11.25% had drunk too much to take or stay with a safe decision and chose to drive. In 6.25% cases the intention to leave the car was changed and for 10% there was no intent but technical offences were committed. The implications for public policy are explored.
HOW THE 679 E EVIDENTIAL BREATH ANALYSER COMPLY WITH THE OIML R 126
Breathanalyser, measurement, alcohol, legal metrology, ethanol, analyser
(Poster) The infra-red source used in the 679 E is an heated silica base. The optical property of silica is to emit an electromagnetic radiation at 9,5110 microns and not in the other wavelengths An optical thin layer filter with a band pass of 0.1 micron at 9,5 microns adds a selectivity of the analytical wavelengths The cross selectivity of interfering substances is therefore rejected in the second order due to both special IR Source and narrow band optical filter.
How To Appeal 15/16 Year Old Directly Or Indirectly In The Frame Of Traffic Education Programs With Focus On Alcohol And Drugs
communication, communication strategies, education, marketing, target group,
traffic safety, training, youth
In Austria since 1997 15 year old people instead of 16 year old are allowed to have a driving licence for mopeds. As this people of this age group are frequently involved in traffic accidents, the Austrian Ministry of Transport and Science financed this project in order to find ways to develop better target group oriented communication methods as a part of traffic education programs. This contribution will give an overview about this project (1). A discussion of the results ends with a catalogue of criteria for communication strategies, that should be taken into consideration whenever young people of an age of 15116 are addressed in connection with traffic issues, be it directly or indirectly. This catalogue includes also requirements concerning the trai- ner or teacher, and it deals extensively with the contents and with the construction of messages.
ICADTS and the Epidemiology of Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety
Alcohol, epidemiology, review
(Plenary) The development of the epidemiology of alcohol, drugs and traffic safety is recorded in the proceedings of the International Conferences convened by the International Council on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety (ICADTS). This paper is a review of the 25 years following the First International Conference which was held in Stockholm in 1950. Far more research has been reported in the second 25 years than in the first but it is argued that in its approach to the epidemiology of drinking and driving ICADTS came of age at the Sixth International Conference in Toronto in 1974.
Ignition Interlock Devices Support Program Development
Ignition Interlock, Breath Alcohol Testing, Traffic Safety, and Alcohol Tester
Ignition interlock technology has developed extensively since its first introduction in 1985. Alcohol sensing technology, events log reporting, data capture and analysis and anti- circumvention techniques have all improved through the determination of jurisdictions to improve the quality of ignition interlock programs. Presently, the recognition of the value of the events log data is resulting in a review of those devices that do not meet the objectives of events log integrity and security. Newer technology is improving on the value of the events log data by providing further information as to the use of the vehicle in the context of a ignition interlock program. Vehicle sensing technology, biometric identification, GPS and cellular technology will further enhance the value of ignition interlock devices in the advancement of traffic safety initiatives.
Ignition Interlocks in Sweden
Ignition Interlock, Breath Alcohol Testing, Traffic Safety, and Alcohol Tester
Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIID's) were first introduced commercially in the USA in 1986 and over the few years have become recognized as a promising new traffic safety initiative in dealing with offenders of drinking driving laws. In early 1990, two insurance companies in Sweden became aware of the development of this initiative and began to investigate its potential for use in Sweden. Later that year, a meeting was held with the National Road Safety Administration at which the advantages of the interlock technology for road safety were presented. An immediate decision was made to propose a pilot program to the Government of Sweden.
Illicit Drugs and Road Traffic: The 1998-1999 Project of the Pompidou Group, Council of Europe: Introduction and Overview
drug-driving, drug-driving law enforcement, drug-driving laws, drug-driving policy, drug-driving prevalence, drug laws, drug policy, harm reduction, risk minimization.
In 1998, the Pompidou Group of the Council of Europe initiated two studies of illicit drugs and road safety throughout 12 participating member countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Subsequently, five additional member countries also participated: Denmark, Finland, Luxembourg, Norway, and Portugal. The first study reviewed investigations of illicit drug prevalence in the road traffic of the original 12 nations. Despite a few extensive epidemiologic studies, this report (Dr. Johan DeGIER) documents the virtual lack of sufficient knowledge about the magnitude of the drug-driving problem.
Inexplicable Accidents? An in-depth study of Norwegian single and head-on accidents on straight road sections
Driver, accident, traffic, single accident, head-on collision, fatigue, drugs, suicide, sensation seeking
The results of the study show that fatigue is a major risk factor explaining almost 40% of the inexplicable accidents. Measures against fatigue should be given high priority within traffic medicine and traffic safety work in general.
Injured Drivers Under The Influence: Attribution Of Injury To Alcohol Involvement
Injury, Alcohol, DWI, Attribution of Injury, Motor Vehicle Crash
Injury due to an alcohol-related motor vehicle crash (MVC) is a common reason for hospitalization. This hospitalization may present an opportunity to change drinking behaviors of non-alcohol-dependent drinkers involved in such injuries, thereby preventing future injury and death. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol consumption before an injury and attribution of the injury to use of alcohol in non-alcohol-dependent young adults hospitalized for injury due to an alcohol-related MVC. Subjects were recruited from two level one trauma centers. During their hospitalization subjects completed a Health Interview Schedule, which included the question "To what extent do you believe your alcohol consumption was responsible for this injury?" Responses were measured on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 7 (totally). Results indicated that 37.8% of the subjects responded "not at all," 31.2% responded "somewhat," and 30.9% responded "mostly" or "totally". Spearman rank correlation between attribution of injury to alcohol involvement and blood alcohol concentration at admission was p = 0.44 (P <.001) In this sample over 60% of subjects attributed their injury in part or totally to their alcohol consumption. Subjects were aware then of the link between their drinking behavior and their injury. This awareness indicates that non-alcohol-dependent drinkers involved in an alcohol-related MVC may be receptive to intervention from health professionals to consider changing their drinking behavior.
International Comparisons of Laws and Alcohol Crash Rates: Lessons Learned
traffic safety laws, enforcement, licensing, alcohol involvement, blood alcohol concentration, sanctions
Learning from the experiences of other countries has facilitated much of the worldwide progress made in recent decades in reducing alcohol-related traffic crashes. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has sponsored a project to compare relevant laws in countries around the world and to examine alcohol-related crash rates in these countries. This paper reports on some of the characteristics of laws related to illegal blood alcohol levels, minimum purchase age for alcohol, age of driving licensure, standard sanctions for offenses, graduated licensing systems, and other laws and policies. It also discusses alcohol-related crash rates reported in these countries and some of the key measurement issues that make comparisons of these rates difficult.
Intoxication while Driving: Two Years of Daily Self-Rating, Relative to Reported Alcohol Consumption
alcohol abuse, alcohol intoxication, bar drinking, blood alcohol, daily alcohol
consumption, drinking and driving, driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated,
interactive voice response system, mood, self-rating, stress.
Two subjects with highly predictable weekly drinking patterns throughout the 2- year study period were selected for detailed analysis on the above variables. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) values were estimated, and official driver records were examined. Both subjects drink at bars frequently, regularly, and heavily, and also drive away from bars at subjective levels of intoxication that suggest an impairing or an even illegal BAC.
Inventory and evaluation of state-of-the-art road side drug testing equipment
Screening; on-site testing; drugs of abuse; urine; saliva; sweat
Nineteen different on-site drug testing devices have been documented, representing approximately 33 brands on the international market. Sixteen are designed for urine, three for saliva, one for sweat. For urine, there exist roughly three kinds of test designs to obtain a result with an on-site drugtest. Seventy percent of the urine devices have a separate amphetamine and methamphetamine test. All devices can be stored at room temperature (15 -25 °C). Sixty percent of the evaluated devices had a users quotation of good to very good, thirty percent was considered acceptable. Only the Rapiscan saliva tester uses an electronic reader with easy storage of data. The proposed cut-off values for amphetamines, methamphetamine, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates and phencyclidine in urine are similar to the SAMHSA cut-offs. The objective interpretation of the result (absence of a reader), the detection of ecstasy and other designer amphetamines, and the specificity of the tests for the illicit amphetamines and morphine are problem issues. Seven non-instrumental urine devices were evaluated in the laboratory for the screening of amphetamines/methamphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine and opiates.
INVESTIGATIONS OF URINE AND BLOOD BEFORE REGRANTING DRIVING LICENSES TO CONSUMERS OF CANNABIS
Cannabis, urine, blood, creatinine, immuno-assays
Cannabis users take an exceptional part of drug consumers because the aptitude for driving motor vehicles is considered to be impaired only if habitual consumption is to be asumed. Urine is an useful material for drug testing. But urine samples can be manipulated not only by drinking high amounts of water. If informations about the frequency of consumption are necessary blood should be analyzed because the concentration of the THC-metabolite in urine depends not only on the concentration in blood and the creatinine content but also on other factors.
IS THERE A COMMON DRINKING PATTERN OF
CONVICTED DRINK DRIVERS?
drink-driving; alcohol; driving
In depth interviews with a sample of 48 male convicted drink drivers, all drinking 50+ units per week, exploring their drinking patterns and styles shows that there is a wide range of drinking patterns and styles and no consistency. Drinking patterns vary over the years, from occasional to daily drinking and are altered by major lifestyle changes. Likewise drinking styles have no consistency but there is a concentration on separating drinking from work-related activities. The quantity consumed on any or each drinking occasion bears no relation to either pattern or style of drinking. The only controlling device is the concept of 'alcoholic' for there is no safe or sensible limits as such. Personal rules for not drinking and driving are associated with 'going out for a drink' rather than drinking per se.
LABORATORY IDENTIFICATION OF DRUG USE BASED ON OBSERVABLE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Drugs and driving, drug impairment, Marijuana, Depressant, Stimulant, Narcotic
The heuristics of the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program (DECP) were evaluated for detecting drug impairment and identifying the type of the impairing drug. A quantitative model, based on stepwise logistic regression of systematic observations made by Drug Evaluation Experts (DREs), provided higher levels of drug identification, and lower rates of errors than the DREs. For impairments caused by cannabis, alprazolam, and amphetamine, the model yielded sensitivity levels greater than 60% and specificity levels greater than 90 percent. For codeine, with a specificity of nearly 90% the sensitivity was only 20%. The regression models' Phi correlations with the actual drug dosing were three times as high as the DREs' correlations with respect to cannabis, twice as high with respect to alprazolam, equal (and poor) with respect to codeine, and over 50 times as high with respect to amphetamine (where the DREs performance was worse than chance). In conclusion, the DECP is a useful tool for drug detection and identification, though to be effective its training procedures should focus on better integration of information from signs and symptoms indicative of drug impairment.
Legal Approaches to Controlling Drugs and Improving Road Safety in Europe
Legal Approaches, Prevention policy, drug driving, If you drink, don't drive, young people, Europe
Prevention policy is also confronted both by the divided popular attitudes towards drugs and the political approaches to drug problems. Despite basic and official rejection of drugs, there is a practical need to tolerate at least some degree of drug consumption, especially cannabis. This willingness to tolerate some level of drug use, but reluctance to legalize it, makes it nearly impossible to address the problem of drug driving with the same effectiveness of relatively simple alcohol campaigns such as "If you drink, don't drive." The strategy of silently tolerating a drug in general and outside the road traffic domain, but officially penalizing its use prior to or during driving, hinders the implementation of traffic-specific prevention programs with clear-cut recommendations for young people on how to handle drugs-and-driving situations.
Long term changes in driving under the influence of alcohol and atttitudes concerning DUI
Alcohol, Automobile Driving, Accidents
At May 1st, 1998, 0.05% was introduced as a new BAC limit in Germany. German accident statistics of the last few years indicate that the introduction of this 0.05% BAC limit resulted in a decrease in the number of alcohol-related crashes even taking into account the steady reduction found during the last decade. Possible mechanisms of this reduction are examined by means of a roadside survey conducted at the end of 1997 in Thueringen (part of the former GDR) and Unterfranken (part of Bavaria). More than 2,000 drivers were stopped at weekend nights and were asked for a breath alcohol sample. Additionally, a short interview was conducted. The refusal rates were extremely low: 95.8% in Unterfranken and 98.2% in Thueringen provided a breath alcohol sample. The results of
this roadside survey was compared to the German Roadside Survey 1992-1994 which was conducted in the same areas with an identical procedure examining more than 20,000 drivers. The analysis of long-term changes from 1992 to 1997 indicates that the reduction in the frequency of DUI is mainly caused by an increasing number of police controls as perceived by the drivers. Differences between former East and West Germany are discussed.
Low doses of marijuana and alcohol severely impair driving when taken together
Marijuana, alcohol, road tracking, car-following, city driving
The purpose of the present studies was to empirically determine the separate and combined effects of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol on actual driving performance. In the first study, eighteen recreational THC users were treated with drugs and placebo according to a balanced, 6- way, observer and subject blind, cross-over design. On separate evenings they were given THC placebo, THC 100 g/kg and THC 200 g/kg with and without alcohol. Alcohol doses were sufficient to sustain blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of around 0.4 g/dl during testing. Subjects conducted two driving tests at each occasion: i.e. the Road Tracking Test and a Car-Following Test. In the second study 16 recreational users were treated with drugs and placebo according to a balanced, 4-way, cross-over, observer and subject-blind design. On separate evening they were treated with THC placebo and THC 100 g/kg with and without alcohol. As in the first study, alcohol doses were sufficient to sustain BACs of around 0.4 g/dl during testing. Subjects conducted
a City Driving Test. Both THC doses alone, and alcohol alone, significantly impaired the subjects' Road Tracking and Car-Following performances. Both THC doses in combination with alcohol severely impaired the subjects' performance in each test. In the City Driving Test, the combination of THC 100 g/kg and alcohol significantly reduced the frequency of visual search for traffic at intersections. While the effects of THC alone in doses up to 200 g/kg might be categorized as "moderate", they become "severe" when THC is combined with a low dose of alcohol.
Lower level of drink-driving in The Netherlands coincides with increased drug-driving
Motorist; gender; age; alcohol; drugs; blood; urine; sweat; legislation; enforcement;
Since 1970, SWOV has carried out periodic roadside surveys into the alcohol consumption of a random sample of Dutch motorists during Autumn week-end nights. In 1997 and 1998, a random sub-sample of drivers was also urine-tested for a number of licit and illicit drugs. Drink-driving in The Netherlands has dropped significantly since the mid-eighties. In 1983, 12% of car drivers during weekend-nights were over the legal BAC-limit of 0.5 g/l. In the first half of the 1990s, this proportion had dropped to around 4%. In the second half of the 1990s, the proportion of illegal BACs increased slightly, stabilizing around 4.5%. But, while drink-driving decreased substantially, the problem of drug-driving seemed to be growing, especially among young males. In the 1997/1998 sample, 6.4% of all urine tests turned out to be positive for one or more impairing drugs; 1% for medicaments like codeine and benzodiazepines, and 5.4% for illegal drugs. Of the illegal drugs, three quarters consisted of cannabis. The remaining quarter consisted of hard drugs, mostly cocaine in combination with cannabis. Among the drivers who tested positive for drugs, 12% had an illegal BAC. So, drug-driving correlates positively with drink-driving.