Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 08th_T1980_Stockholm
THE FATE OF DRIVER CASUALITIES FOUND TO HAVE A RAISED BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION
Road safety, drink driving, Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), road traffic crashes, DRIVER CASUALITIES, road toll, Australia
The Compulsory Blood Sampling of road crash casualties is but one element in the legislative and educative methods used to combat the influence of alcohol in causing road crashes. This Victorian experience shows that this legislative measure has been accepted by the community, is workable and has played a significant part in reducing the road toll in this State.
THE INVOLVEMENT OF POLICE IN THE EVALUATION OF SUBSTANTIVE BREATH MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, BREATH MEASURING INSTRUMENTS,driving offence, UK
From a road safety point of view, it will be far better for a motorist who has been involved in a serious, perhaps fatal accident and who susbsequently provides a positive analysis, to be taken before the cour ts with a minimum of delay thereby reducing further risk by speedy disqualification. Under current legislation, it can take up to three months to complete a prosecution for a drink and driving offence, three months in which the lives of other road users are in peril.
THE MEASUREMENT OF BREATH ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION AND THE INHERENT
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE LUNG
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, BREATH ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION,
The determination of the Blood-alcohol concentration from the measurement of alcohol in the breath has the advantage that the sample can be easily obtained without invasion of the body which is necessary for a blood sample. Moreover it is well known that the breath alcohol-concentration is closer related to that occuring in arterial blood and hence parallels the actual intoxication. It also avoids the uncertainty resulting from arterio-venous differences when using samples from the cupdtal vein in the inclining phase after alcohol ingestion.
THE POSSIBILITIES OP COUNTERACTING ALCOHOL INEBRIATION
Road safety, drink driving, COUNTERACTING, ALCOHOL INEBRIATION, EtOH intoxication, Finland
Various attempts to counteract acute EtOH effects have not been very rewarding so far.Various reports from animal experiments suggest that EtOH sleep or EtOH anaesthesia is effectively counteracted with various more or less non-specific stimulants,hut these results refer to heavy EtOH intoxication only.An altered turn-over of various train neurotransmitters well documented in animals may not he an important contributor to inebriation but is rather associated with EtOH inebriation
in a non-specific way.One may conclude that there are no relevant animal behaviour model that matches the subtle central depression after low doses of EtOH.If EtOH acts as a solvent which impairs various membrane functions,a really effective specific antagonist would be hard to find.Minor antagonists are probable as reviewed above.In spite of this pessimistic view more research should be devoted to this important topic,particularly having chronic alcoholics as experimental subjects.
THE PROBLEM DRINKER, WHO IS HE?
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,PROBLEM DRINKER, BAC, Netherlands
The results of the correlation and regression analyses were that only one official police report variable offers a significant explanation for the MAST-score - namely the BAC. Consequently, it is obvious that the official police report variables provide insufficient explanations for the scores in the MAST.
THE ROLE OF ALCOHOI, IN ROAD ACCIDENTS IN HUNGARY
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,socialpsychological, health education, HUNGARY
Obtaining a driving licence sets strict requirements to candidates. The examination is preceeded by several tests, that are not only of a medical character, but include several kinds of psychological examinations having a socialpsychological aspect as well these examinations of the personality aim at screening out agressive persons. This activity is completed by a wide - spread social activity that tries by methods of health education to influence drivers and the whole poxrulation in the direction of temperance and sobriety. This wide - spread activity is all the more justified fact, that the number of passenger cars approaches one million, which means that every fourth family have a car.
THE ROLE OF ALCOHOLIC STATE IN ROAD TRAFFIC IN HUNGARY
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,ALCOHOLIC, HUNGARY
To depress the incidence of drinking and driving other, strict measures are needed to be taken. Of course, besides increasing control and severe penalties, we stress prevention by education. In this latter a leading role is undertaken by the National Council of Traffic Safety with the co-operation of several other institutions.
THE SWEDISH LEGISLATIVE DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN RELATION TO ALCOHOL AND TRAFFIC FROM 1920 TO 1980.
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, LEGISLATION, countermeasures, Sweden
Today there is a hidden conflict between the moral responsibility model or perspective and the medical or public health model or perspective in the Swedish legislative decision making process. By using the first model we can try to teach the new generations of drivers not to combine alcohol and traffic . By using the second model we can try to reach drivers with alcohol problems. Unfortunately, most legislators and groups of actors do not understand that a high BAC implies a high probability of having an alcohol problem. Now we need a combination of the two models as a base for reform in the area, otherwise our ef forts in creating traffic safety will be limited. The current Swedish compromises, in relations to sanctions, probably do not lead to effective countermeasures as they are mainly conflict solving devices for groups of actors instead of rational measures helping the driving population to increase traffic safety.
USE OF TRIALS BY DECLARATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR COURT PROCEDURES IN TRAFFIC MATTERS
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, traffic citations, COURT PROCEDURES, USA
With the cooperation of the district attorney's office, the California highway patrol, the la mesa police department , the el Cajon Police department and the sheriff's
office, the court, on September 1, 1971, began, on an experimental basis, a new procedure called "trial by declaration" for traffic citations involving ordinary
moving, parking, equipment, registration and licensing violations. at such trial, the officer's testimony will be presented by written declaration rather than in person.
a district attorney need not be present.
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, VIOLENCE, ALCOHOL, Portugal
In 145 cases of homicide victims , studied in our Institute between 1960 and 1978 we found 22 cases with alochol in the blood in values comprised between 26 mg% and 317 mg%. The alcohol problems are presently a point of explanation for the Portuges people,although it is not very easy to find an immediate solution because they are based in very deep sociloal , economical and cultural reasons.