Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 15th_T2000_Stockholm
Drunk Driving of Young Road Users: Epidemiology and Prevention
Drunk Driving, Young Road Users, publicity campaigns, Epidemiology and Prevention
The first obvious conclusion is that to keep on running isolated actions seem to be of little use concerning young people drunk driving prevention : for example, publicity campaigns launched without any other joined action have never shown any significant result ; samely, random breath testing enforcement by the police, if not heavily publicized, will not have positive outcomes (because the perceived probability of arrest is not modified). Or, running isolated actions is precisely what is often done ... So, it is clearly the complementarity, the synergy between various measures and actions which is efficient. Each type of action affect has different effects according to various subgroups of drivers, and each type of action does not intervene at the same moment of the risk process.
Drunk driving: The role of alcohol consumption, situational aspects and general deterrence
Alcohol-drinking-prevention-and-control, general deterrence, drunk-driving and legislation,
crime policy, self-control, situational aspects of drunk-driving, moral attachment and social
Consistent with our previous research, the decision for drunk driving is conceptualized to reflect the ratio of inhibiting and facilitating cognitions. A number of variables have been previously suggested to moderate this ratio, and thus, the likelihood of drunk driving. This study has the goal to assess effects of alcohol consumption, situational aspects, and general deterrence (i. e. the role of criminal law) within a common experimental context (hypotheti- cal scenario). Thus, participants were asked to estimate the likelihood of driving under increasing levels of alcohol consumption (0.50/to 3.00/00 BAC) and different variations in the social context (social disapproval, accident risk, risk of apprehension, cost/benefit incentives). In addition, a questionnaire assessed effects of general and specific deterrence. A total of 163 drunk drivers and 147 sober drivers participated in this study. The results revealed that the importance of different context conditions varied largely across individuals, especially under high alcohol consumption. That is, subgroups are differentially sensitive to risk apprehension, social disapproval and accident risk. Interestingly, for the majority of individuals, two aspects of general deterrence (risk of apprehension and severity of punishment) do not seem to be an important part of their cognitions on drunk driving. On the other hand moral attachment and social disapproval (especially by friends, peers etc.) are of major importance for the expected future behavior. Implications for prevention and interven- tion are
discussed. Concerning crime policy the proposal is to replace fines by penal warnings in combination with counseling and - if necessary - treatment in order to shorten the period of suspension of the driver's license. Most important concerning deterrence is the "sanction" of temporarily suspending the driver's license. It can be constructively used to tackle the problems of certain groups of drunk drivers. On the other hand the social norms and social disapproval of drunk driving are more important to guarantee the conformity of possible offenders. Therefore public education and other forms of strengthening behavioral norms against drunk driving have to be stressed.
DUI Officer Detection of Illicit Drugs in Drivers Using Rapid Immunoassay Devices
Drugs, Driving, Immunoassay, Illegal Drugs, Point-of-care Testing, Substance Abuse
DUI Officers [Tampa Police, Tampa, FL, USA) were trained to use two rapid immunoassay devices to test DUI suspects for recent drug use. In addition to routine breath-alcohol concentration determinations (BAC's), urine specimens were collected by police officers from persons placed under arrest for suspicion of driving-under-the-influence (DUI). Two hundred twenty seven urine specimens were collected and analyzed by one of two "on-site" immunoassay kits being evaluated. The arresting officer conducted all analyses. Aliquots of all specimens testing positive on-site, and 10% of on-site negatives were shipped to a certified lab for re-analysis and confirmation by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Results indicate that 89% of the subject population was legally drunk (BAC's equal to or greater than 0.08) and 30% also tested positive for one or more illegal drugs. Fifty-five percent of those individuals who were able to pass the breathalyzer test with legal levels of alcohol (i.e. BrAc <0.08) were positive for one or more illegal drugs. Marijuana and cocaine were the primary drugs detected. Results support the feasibility of using rapid immunoassay kits for detection of driving under the influence of drugs, and provide insights as to the prevalence of drivers under the influence of illegal drugs.
DUPLICATE BREATH SAMPLES USING THE DRAGER 7110
Breath Analysis; Breath Samples; Drager Alcotest 7110 Mk II, BAC
The aim of this study was to determine the comparison of duplicate breath samples taken on a Drager Alcotest 7110, Mk II. A total of 216 persons were tested with the second sample being obtained 2 to 10 minutes after the first sample had been analysed. The mean difference between duplicate samples is 0.003 grams of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood. The minimum difference was 0.000 grams of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood and a maximum difference 0.015 grams. The Report of the Joint Legal, Policing and Scientific Committee determined that between 0.020 and 0.049 grams of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood the second result must be within the criteria of ±0.010 grams of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood of the first result. Above 0.050 grams of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood the second result must be within the criteria of ±15% of the first result. The failure rate between 0.020 and 0.049 (n=79) is zero with a standard deviation of 0.0014. The failure rate where the BAC is > 0.050 (n=101) is <1 % with a standard deviation of 0.0033. 36 subjects were less than 0.020 grams of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood. Duplicate breath samples can be successfully obtained on a Drager Alcotest 7110 Mk II instrument coupled with a good quality assurance programme.
Effect of lowering the alcohol limit in Denmark
Driver; alcohol, accident, alcohol limit, effect
On 1 March 1998 the Danish per se limit was lowered from 0.08% to 0.05% BAC for drivers of motorised vehicles. Based on accident data and drivers' drinking habits before and after the change, the effect of the new limit has been evaluated, knowing that a 10-month period is too short time for making sufficient estimations. Questions on drivers' attitudes to DUI showed remarkably decreases in the number of drinks, which they allow themselves to drink during the last two hours before driving. In total, the proportion of drivers who would not drink at all or drink only one drink increased from 71% before the change to 80% after the change. The answer most often given of those who had changed their drinking habits seemed to be related to the lower limit. However the change in drinking habits has not resulted in a marked decrease in neither the proportion of injury accidents nor the proport on of DUI injury accidents with drivers of motor vehicles.
Effects of lowering the legal BAC-limit in Austria
accidents, BAC-limit, evaluation, legislation
In January 1998 the legal BAC-limit in Austria was lowered from .08% to .05%. Injuries due to drunk driving decreased during the first year by approximately 10%. During the first months the decrease was more significant than later in the year. However, a moderate increase in injuries due to drunk driving had to be stated in the year following. Already in 1992 the BAC-limit for the specific group of novice drivers had been lowered from .08% to .01%. An accident analysis after five years of observation indicated a reduction of drunk driving injuries in the group of novice drivers by 30.9% in contrast to a reduction of only 5.9% in the group of experienced drivers.
Effects of Single Doses of Etizolam and Lorazepam on Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Volunteers
psychomotor performance, Etizolam
Objective: This study investigated the possible effects of Etizolam on human psychomotor performance. Methods: Sixteen young healthy volunteers, eight male and eight female, were recruited as subjects. Drugs (Lorazepam 2 mg, Etizolam 0.25, Etizolam 1 mg) and placebo were administered according to a single-dose, double-blind, balanced, four-way, crossover design. Subjects' psychomotor performance was assessed at baseline and at 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after treatment. Psychomotor performance was measured using the following tests: Critical Flicker Fusion, Visual Vigilance Task, Choice Reaction Time, Critical Tracking Task, Response Competition Test. Results: Etizolam at both doses had no effect on vigilance, short term memory, psychomotor coordination or speed of decision making. Nevertheless, at the dose of 1 mg, it did play a significant role in impairing arousal. Lorazepam caused significant impairment of all psychomotor functions tested in the experiment. Conclusion: After single therapeutic doses, Etizolam does not induce important changes in psychomotor performance and therefore the drug does not influence the ability to drive or work.
Effects of Cannabis and Amphetamines on Driving Simulator Performance of Recreational Drug Users in the Natural Field
Illegal Drugs, Automobile Driving, Performance
In 1998, a field study funded by the Federal Highway Research Institute (BAST) of Germany was conducted with drivers at discotheques. Subjects were contacted by researchers from the Center of Traffic Sciences, Wuerzburg (IZVW) and asked to participate in a short interview concerning drugs and driving. Subjects who had consumed drugs and had either been driving, were going to drive or indicated that they had been driving under the influence of drugs at other occasions were asked for an extended interview, a driving-simulator test and for blood, urine and saliva samples (N = 241). Additionally, sober control subjects (N = 59) and subjects under the influence of alcohol (N = 45) were included. The study examines the effect of cannabis (two groups: acute and previous consumption) and amphetamines and ecstasy (two groups: low and high concentration) alone and in combina- tion with alcohol on driving performance. Driving performance was analyzed be means of a driving-simulator which evaluates the ability to maintain lateral position and speed, tests pe- ripheral and central attention and risk-taking behavior. The analyses show that consumption of cannabis and amphetamines /ecstasy, only, does not adversely affect driving behavior. However, the combination of the two
substances with one another and or alcohol leads to a substantial impairment of driving and performance in secondary tasks.
Enforcement of Zero Tolerance Laws in the United States
Enforcement, zero tolerance laws, alcohol-impaired driving, youth
By 1998 all states had enacted zero tolerance laws, which prohibit people younger than 21 from driving with any positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC). A review of the laws was undertaken to determine whether variations in zero tolerance laws might affect their enforcement. Five states were selected (California, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, and Virginia) that appeared to differ in the ease with which the laws could be enforced. Detailed information on enforcement practices was collected in interviews with police officers and motor vehicle officials. The zero tolerance laws in these states have done little to change the way police identify underage drinking drivers. Consequently, these laws rarely are being enforced independently of the laws against impaired driving aimed at all ages. However, if an officer stops an underage drinking driver, some provisions of the laws can make it easier to issue a zero tolerance citation. For example, in most states an evidentiary test for BAC is required to prove a zero tolerance violation, but in a number of states the implied consent law requires either an arrest for driving while impaired (DWI) or probable cause for an arrest before such a test can be administered. Thus, underage offenders with low BACs cannot be arrested for zero tolerance. By contrast, in California officers can use results from preliminary breath test (PBT) units at the roadside as evidence of zero tolerance if an underage driver is suspected of drinking. Factors that reduce the likelihood of enforcement are discussed.
Epidemiological roadside survey on psychoactive substances and driving in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy)
roadside survey, traffic safety, psychoactive substances, ethyl alcohol
The prevalence of drivers under the influence of drugs and alcohol is very high in Italy. The lack of proper prevention/education programs and of any deterrent effect, due to the non-application of laws in force, means that at-risk behaviour remains at high levels. Italy needs to extend the isolated prevention programs undertaken so far and to set up a permanent service of clinical and toxicological checks to be applied throughout the country.
Evaluation Of The Texas Youth Awareness Program
zero-toleranc, alcohol education program, alcohol/drug abuse screening, Texas USA
The State of Texas, USA has laws which prohibit consumption, purchase or possession of alcoholic beverages prior to age 21. In addition, a zero-tolerance (any detectable amount of alcohol) law for drivers under age 21 was enacted in 1997. Young people convicted of these offenses must complete an approved alcohol education program in addition to other legal sanctions. This paper presents an analysis of young people who attended this program and an evaluation of cognitive, affective and behavior change by this group. Demographic data, alcohol/drug abuse screening scores and knowledge tests were analyzed.
Experimental Behavioral Studies: Then, Now and Future
road traffic crashes, driving under alcohol, BAC level, visual performance, peripheral vision, central vision, Los Angeles USA
(Plenary) Conclusions about the potential danger of a drug based on its failure to affect performance in a given, limited domain must be viewed with caution. Crashes occur because of the behaviors that are affected, not because of behaviors that are not affected. If visual acuity is insensitive to alcohol, as numerous studies have demonstrated, it does not follow that other measures of visual performance will also be resistant to alcohol. In fact, visual performance in driving under alcohol is affected at very low BACs, but this is primarily because of its effects on information processing and attentional aspect of cognitive functioning. Many aspects of visual performance are dependent on the adequacy of cognitive functioning. If cognitive functioning is impaired, so is visual performance. For example, in a study by Moskowitz and Sharma (1974), it was demonstrated that alcohol had no effect on detecting objects in peripheral vision when there were no demands for attending to central vision. However, when subjects were required, as they are in actual driving situations, to attend to both central and peripheral vision, alcohol impairs the detection of objects in peripheral vision, both as a function of the mental workload required for central vision and the BAC level.
Factors Other Than Alcohol In Fatal Drink Driving Accidents
Drivers, fatalities; driving under the influence; multifactorial causality; multivariate analysis
Data in our In-depth Fatal Accident Database for the years 1994 to 1996 have been analyzed using multivariate cluster analysis for fatally injured drivers at fault in their accident. The database has been created by matching official data on accidents, coroners' reports, hospital and post-mortem blood alcohol levels, and criminal and traffic offending histories. Factors that are found to be important in drink driving accidents in addition to alcohol are the use of cannabis, adverse weather, the driver falling asleep, and involvement of a truck. Some of these factors may be more readily addressed with remedial measures than that of alcohol.
Factors predicting driving under the influence of illegal drugs
Illegal Drugs, Automobile Driving, Attitudes
In the summer of 1998 the Center for Traffic Sciences in Wurzburg (IZVW) conducted a large field study investigating factors affecting driving under the influence of illegal drugs. Researchers interviewed 2,779 drivers visiting Bavarian discotheques (responder rate 90.2%). From this pool, drivers under the influence of illegal drugs as well as drunk and sober drivers were asked to participate in an extensive interview (n = 503, responder rate 60.6%). The analyses revealed that drunk driving (DUI) and driving under the influence of illegal drugs (DUID) share some of the same predictors: a high consumption of the respective sub- stance, a permissive attitude towards driving while intoxicated as well as a permissive atti- tude within the social network. On the other hand, persons driving under the influence of ille- gal drugs (especially cannabis) consider their behavior less damnable than persons driving under the influence of alcohol. Therefore, user drivers refrain from driving less often than drunk drivers. Moreover, for the former deterrence variables are less important, and the peer group seems to have less influence. Instead, their decision depends more on personality variables.
Fatal Pedestrian Accidents in South-east Hungary
Fatal Pedestrian Accidents, young victims, intoxicated victims,
vulnerable road users, Hungary
(Poster) Pedestrians are the most vulnerable victims of traffic accidents. According to statistics out of a total of 20,767 traffic accidents registered in Hungary in 1994 4,720 involved pedestrian hits, half of which was the pedestrian's fault. Death is overrepresented compared to the number of accidents (10). Analysis of pedestrian hits in Budapest shows a picture conforming to the international average and the death rate among young victims is even below Western European figures (9). Conversely, data from outside Budapest indicate a situation far worse than in the capital city in terms of severity of pedestrian accidents and intoxication among victims is particularly frequent.
Field Test of a Countermeasure Program Targeting Alcohol- Impaired Pedestrians
Alcohol; driver; accident; traffic; education; wounds and injuries; pedestrians
This paper describes a NHTSA sponsored research study to develop and test a set of countermeasures intended to reduce alcohol-related crashes among adult pedestrians. A test city (Baltimore, MD) was chosen, and to provide insights into the crash victims activities, in-depth discussions were held with pedestrians who had been in alcohol-related crashes. A large set of countermeasures was compiled and submitted to city representatives for consideration, and the Department of Public Works agreed to become the lead organization in implementing their "Walk Smart Baltimore" program. Countermeasures used as part of the program included a press kit, a video for police, television and radio public service announcements, as well as engineering modifications. Reductions were reported in total crashes, crashes on roads on which special signs were erected, serious injury crashes, and crashes in targeted zones. Overall, the findings suggest the program made some positive inroads into reducing the pedestrian alcohol problem in Baltimore. Additional research is needed to determine whether a more intensive or longer duration campaign would be associated with more substantial crash reductions.
Fifty Years on - Looking Back at Developments in Methods of Blood- and Breath-Alcohol Analysis
Alcohol, analysis, blood, breath, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), Breathalyzer, enzymes, gas chromatography
(Plenary) Exactly 50 years ago at the T-1950 conference in Stockholm a new principle was introduced for measuring alcohol in biological specimens. This involved the oxidation of ethanol with an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which had been extracted and purified from horse liver. The ADH method was more sensitive and selective for measuring ethanol than the wet-chemistry oxidation procedures used during the first have of the century. Breath tests for alcohol were given a boost when Borkenstein developed the Breathalyzer in 1954. Breath testing for alcohol influence became widely used for traffic law enforcement purposes in USA, Canada, and Australia. In European countries blood and urine were the preferred specimens for forensic alcohol analysis and by the early 1960ies the method of gas chromatography (GC) appeared including the headspace sampling technique, which was perfect for analyzing volatile substances in body fluids. Interest in Europe shifted towards evidential breath-alcohol testing in the 1980ies, which coincided with the introduction of new analytical technology for sampling and analysis of breath, such as compact infrared (IR) spectrometers controlled by microprocessors. In the 1970ies, electrochemical oxidation of alcohol with fuel cell devices became popular and these were incorporated into hand-held instruments suitable for roadside screening of motorists. Recent improvements in this kind of technology have meant that fuel cells are being used for evidential breath-alcohol testing. Whether breath-alcohol devices utilizing gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC- MS) or Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) will emerge to provide the ultimate way of identifying ethanol in blood and breath samples for forensic purposes remains to be seen. One goal for the new millennium, at least in some countries, seems to be the use of evidential breath-alcohol testing at the roadside. This saves much time and resources for the police and also reduces the number of false-positive roadside alcohol screening tests.
Graduated Licensing in Florida: The .02% BAC Driving Restriction
Zero Tolerance, alcohol, .02% BAC, teenage drivers, graduated licensing
Using data gathered through a self-administered survey of Florida high school juniors and seniors in 1996 and 1998, this study examined teens' reported attitudes and behaviors before and after the state's Zero Tolerance law took effect on January 1, 1997. Decreases occurred in reported driving when drinking and reported riding with friends who were drinking. Teen support for the law increased substantially. Significant changes occurred more often for males and for teens in urban and suburban, as opposed to rural, counties.
Hair analysis for the assessment of exposure to drugs of abuse in applicants for driving license
Driving license; hair analysis; heroin; cocaine
Owing to the ability to accumulate drugs which, by converse, quickly disappear from biological fluids, hair is the matrix of choice for the assessment of past exposure to drugs, in terms of weeks to months preceding hair collection. In Italy, hair analysis for drugs of abuse is increasingly included among the clinical and laboratory tests that subjects with a history of drug abuse or suspected drug abusers have to undergo when applying for the issue/renewal of the driving licence. When hair tests positive, and anamnestic and clinical data support the diagnosis of past drug use, the driving licence is not issued or is withdrawn for a period of 6-12 months in order to prevent drug abusers from driving while under influence. The experience gained after several years of application demonstrates the efficacy of hair testing in detecting past exposure to drugs. Moreover, the combination of such a powerful and sensitive analytical tool with the adoption of
restrictive measures (i.e. the withdrawal of the driving licence) acts as a strong deterrent, reducing the risk of relapse into drug use: two thirds of the positives for either opiates or cocaine, and more than 90% of the negatives, tested negative at a second control carried out 1-2 years later.
Hard-core Drinking Drivers In New Zealand
Drivers; driving under influence; alcohol drinking; accidents, traffic; fatalities; law
enforcement; recidivism; New Zealand
Data from studies of fatally-injured drinking drivers and convicted drinking drivers are compared using two different definitions of hard-core drinking drivers, namely those with a prior conviction for drink driving and those with a blood alcohol level exceeding 150 mg/100 mL for the current offence. The former definition leads to much greater distinctions between the two groups. The repeat offending rates for drinking and driving suggest that the harsher penalties given to hard-core offenders serve to minimize the rate of repeat offending. There have been marked changes in the age distributions of hard-core and soft-core convicted drinking drivers between 1992/1993 and 1998/1999.