Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 08th_T1980_Stockholm
PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS AND DRIVING IMPAIRMENT
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS, DRIVING IMPAIRMENT, Australia
The mobility of the Australian people has also increased dramatically in the past ten years. In 1969, 676. 173 motorised vehicles were registered in the State of Queensland; by 1979, the figure had reached 1, 225. 792, and this in a population of approximately 2. 000. 000. One feels that similar increases must be mirrored in other countries. Hence, the problem of alcohol, drug-alcohol interaction and traffic safety is unlikely to decrease without positive, legislative action.
QUANTITATIVE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ETHANOL CONCENTRATIONS IN BLOOD,
BREATH, SALIVA AND URINE DURING ETHANOL METABOLISM IN MAN
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, blood alcohol concentration (BAC),ETHANOL METABOLISM, Sweden
It is conceivable that under field conditions, such as in connection with cases of suspected drunken driving, reliable sampling of bio-fluids may be hampered if the suspected individual is unwilling to comply or is heavily intoxicated. The confidence limits for an estimate of BAC from analysis of breath saliva or urine under these conditions can be expected to be significantly wider. The degree of confidence and magnitude of the limits must await the results of a statistically planned and properly evaluated field trial.
RANDOM ROAD TESTS IN NON-ACCIDENT AND ACCIDENT-INVOLVED DRIVERS: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DATA, DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ROLE OF ALCOHOLISM
RANDOM ROAD TESTS, NON-ACCIDENT, ACCIDENT, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DATA, DIFFERENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS, ,ALCOHOLISM, Sweden
Legislation on driving 'under the influence' was introduced in Sweden in the early thirties; mandatory blood tests came into force in 19 34. The present law differentiates between two levels: a lower limit of 0.5 promil* for driving
'under the influence' (1rattonykterhet1) and a higher limit of 1.5 promil for driving while 'intoxicated at the wheel ('rattfylleri'). Apprehension of a driver was based
on 'a fair suspicion' of a driver being 'under the influence' up to 1975.
RECENT TRENDS IN COUNTER-MEASURES AND RESEARCH CONCERNING DRINKING
AND DRIVING IN THE NETHERLANDS
Road safety, drink driving, Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents, Netherlands
The introduction of a statutory BAC level of 0.5 o/oo has a clear effect on fatal accidents occurring by night, involving moving passenger cars. The effect is still evident, even three to four years after the change in the law. - This effect results from a reduced alcohol consumption by motorists, which in turn, is the result of an increased risk of punishment, which the motorists have to face in case of driving after drinking. - The content and intensity of publicity contributed considerably
to these effects.
RELATION BETWEEN ARTERIAL, VENOUS AND LUNG TISSUE ALCOHOL LEVELS. A STUDY ON RABBITS
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, Blood ALCOHOL LEVELS, Germany
The experiments have shown that indepently from the existence and extent of an arteriovenous discrepancy virtually all animals had markedly lower lung alcohol levels of an order of 0.2 - 0.3 %o (referred to a water percentage of 80 in the sample) compared to the peripheric venous blood alcohol levels. These negative venopulmonal differences occured as much in the invasion phase as in the elimination phase and remained unchanged despite varying speeds of invasion and varying doses of alcohol. Deductions from the lung alcohol level to the peripheric venous blood alcohol level or even brain alcohol level could not be made in our experiments.
RESULTS AND IMPLICATIONS OF
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, ASAP program, blood alcohol tests, BAC, USA
A side benefit of the ASAP program was the establishment of a census of fatal accidents in the United States. While nearly all States have laws requiring blood alcohol tests on fatally injured drivers, only a few actually test the majority of all dead drivers. Ten States do test 75% or more of all of their drivers and these States provide a trend which is probably representative of the nation as a whole in the number of high BAC as compared to zero BAC drivers from year to year. The trend from 1976 through 1979 is shown in Table 4 indicates that despite widespread adoption of some of the ASAP countermeasures, there is no decernable progress in reducing the drinking driving problem in the U.S.
ROAD ACCIDENTS IN YOUNG DRUG-ADDICTS. COMPARISON WITH A TEST GROUP.
Road safety, drink driving, Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents, YOUNG DRUG-ADDICTS, Italy
In the subjects who use opiates, compensative mechanisms appear and that they may be ascribed to the fact that these people worry about a possible arrest, as consequence o f a road accident, so that they pay more attention in driving and/or limit the use of vehicles.
ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND LIQUOR STORE STRIKES: Some Scandinavian Experiences
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,LIQUOR, Scandinavia
Since relatively few people with grave drinking problems - as skid-row residents - are in a position to own or drive a motor vehicle, a drop in their consumption would probably not notably affect the incidence of road accidents and drunken drivers. If at the same time it is assumed that alcohol consumption among the bulk of the adult population remained more or less unchanged during the strike at the Wine and Spirits Monopoly, this may explain why the effect of the strike was not particularly marked in terms of road accidents and acts of drunken driving.
SCREENING OF ARRESTED DRUNKEN DRIVERS FOR ALCOHOLISM
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,SCREENING, ARRESTED DRUNKEN DRIVERS,ALCOHOLISM, Finland
373 arrested drunken drivers were screened for alcohol abuse and eventual alcoholism, with the following main conclusions. (1) About 11 % of the drivers admitted the daily use of alcohol and 49 % drank more than once a week. About every second (40 %) drank for heavy intoxication at a time. Every fifth considered himself as an alcohol abuser but only 7 % had participated in Alcoholics Anonymous. About 40 % admitted an arrest for public intoxication and 34 % had one or more previous convictions for drunken driving. (2) According to the criteria of National Council on Alcoholism 45 % of the drivers could be considered as non-alcoholics and by two scores 19 % as alcoholics. (3) The serum activities of gammaglutamyl transpeptidase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. On the basis of the elevated GGT activity about 15 % of the drivers could be considered alcoholics. (4) The present results show that there are significantly more alcoholics among the drunken drivers than is the rate of alcoholism in Finland.
SOCIALLY COST EFFECTIVE LAW ENFORCEMENT POLICY TO CONTROL MOTORING ACCIDENTS IN SCANDINAVIA
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, LAW ENFORCEMENT, SCANDINAVIA
It would be a mistake to construe these results to mean that law enforcement effort should be reduced, at least until one raises further questions about them. Obviously, one problem could be that an inappropriate value was used for human life in calculating the benef its. Alternatively, it is possible to calculate the implied value of human life if we assume marginal benefits exactly equal marginal costs, i . e . , that policymakers were, in fact , behaving optimally. It is 1,300,000 N.kr. That figure is probably somewhat high in comparison with expenditures on other aspects of public safety and health. Still , there are other possibilities one would want to consider before recommending a reduction in control effort.
THE ALCOTEST 7010 - A NEW BREATH ALCOHOL ANALYZER
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, ALCOTEST 7010, BREATH ALCOHOL ANALYZER, Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), Germany
The constructional features of the IR-Breath Alcohol Analyzer Alcotest 7010 are discussed. In vitro test prove that Alcotest 7010 has an excellent short term and long term stability.About 4 00 BAC / BrAC correlation data were obtained in 3 field trials. The breath alcohol values were generally in good agreement with the certified blood results.
THE ANALYSIS OF DRUGS IN SMALL BLOOD SAMPLES BY RADIOIMMUNOASSAY
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, DRUGS, BLOOD SAMPLES,RADIOIMMUNOASSAY, UK
160 blood and 40 urine samples were analysed, but not all assays were applied to each sample. For example, 53 of the blood samples were assayed for amphetamine, 16 of them were found to be positive and 37 were negative. The choice of assays was influenced by the known circumstances of each case and so the results are biased, but even so it is noteworthy that out of 140 samples analysed, 46% contained diazepam or another benzodiazepine, and of 141 samples assayed for cannabinoids, 24% gave positive results.
THE BENEFITS OF EARLY DISPOSITION OF
DRINKING DRIVER CASES
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, DISPOSITION, USA
It has been our experience that well over 80% of the individuals called for arraignment hearing dispose of their cases at that time. If it appears that there is no developing alcohol-related problem, the court will impose the usual terms and conditions of probation, which I might add, have been previously explained in detail by defense counsel.
The cost of driving under the influence of alcohol - an estimate concerning Sweden in 1977
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, alcohol, Sweden
In the year of 1977 a total of 400.000 road traffic accidents took place in Sweden,resulting in a cost of 4.6 billion Swedish Crowns. 32.000 of these accidents, 8 percent , are considered to have been caused by a1cohol - inf1uenced driving , this resulting in a cost of 0.8 billion Swedish Crowns, 17 percent of the total cost .
THE DETERMINATION OF DRUGS IN BLOOD OF SUSPECTED DRUNKEN DRIVERS BY MEANS OF THE RADIOIMMUNOASSAY (RIA)
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, DRUGS, blood alcohol concentration,RADIOIMMUNOASSAY (RIA), Germany
The analysed samples of persons in accidents who showed clear symptoms of alcoholization were in contrast with the small amount of alcohol concentration. After the trials had ended with a verdict of ‘not guilty’, RIA tests were used to find various medicines and drugs. These led to positive results in about 25% of all cases. The group of benzodiazepine was not taken in consideration.
THE DRINKING ROAD USER IN GREAT BRITAIN
Road safety, drink driving, Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents, fatalities, legislation, GREAT BRITAIN
Although there is some evidence (from records of BACs in fatalities) that the acceleration of the drink/driving problem in Great Britain has been checked, alcohol remains a major factor in the occurrence of road accidents. The data presented in this paper reinforce the need to strengthen legislation to deal with drinking and driving, including publicity to all road users, and to continue with supporting research activities to identify more effective countermeasures.
The drunken teenage driver, who is he
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, blood alcohol limit, drunken teenage driver,drug,alcohol abuse , Sweden
In Linkoping, an university town of 100,000 inhabitants, we started 1970 a teenage-clinic, as the name says for youngsters from 13 to 19, The background was the acceleration of drug and alcohol abuse in the 60-s, The politicians in the province of Ostergotland had got the idea to try get some prophylactic effect if a child-youth-psychiatric team could reach the teenagers in the risk-zone.
The Effectiveness of Education and Treatment Programs for Drinking Drivers: A Decade of Evaluation
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,Education, Treatment Programs, DWI, USA
it is suggested that one of the major positive characteristics of a DWI referral program is that it can facilitate a general deterrence program which is based on increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for DWI by increasing arrest rates. Such programs will not likely add much to the solution of the highway safety problem by themselves.
THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND CAFFEINE, ALONE AND IN COMBINATION, ON SKILLS PERFORMANCE
ALCOHOL,CAFFEINE, SKILLS PERFORMANCE, alcohol-caffeine levels, CNS blocking agents, impaired driver, USA
These results indicate that caffeine can reduce alcohol impairment
of some driving-related tasks at some alcohol-caffeine levels. The
results suggest that there may be value in examining other drugs with
some potential for counteracting alcohol effects. For example, as a
better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms involved in the CNS
effect of alcohol is gained, research might focus on the development
of CNS blocking agents to alcohol. At this point, it can be said that
several cups of strong coffee or tea may produce a modest improvement
in the performance of an alcohol-impaired driver.
THE EFFECTS OF ATROPINE ON PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS
ATROPINE,PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS, anticholinergics, Finland
driving is not contraindicated during the therapy with central anticholinergics but, anyway, clinicians should tell their patients about an impairment of driving skills when prescribing these drugs. In regard to older patients or those with eye diseases, accommodation paralysis due to oral atropine may be important in traffic.