Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 15th_T2000_Stockholm
Differential Validity in Risk Screening of Impaired Driving Offenders
Differential validity; risk screening; assessment instruments; DUI recidivism
Differential predictive validity of the Mortimer-Filkins Questionnaire was examined with respect to ethnicity in a sample of 4,633 convicted drink driving offenders in Mississippi Linear-logistic regression analysis indicated the instrument is a stronger predictor of drink driving recidivism among Caucasians than African-Americans Practical implications of a finding of differential validity for risk screening are discussed, and the need to evaluate other instruments with respect to differential validity is addressed.
Drink And Drive. Can Media Campaigns Solve The Problem?
Communication campaigns, target group analysis, drink driving, attitudes, self-reported behaviour
Research in recent years emphasizes the importance of target group analysis and of message strategies. It is also pointed out that the combination of different measures, e.g. media campaigns, interpersonal communication, enforcements and education have better effects than each of them alone. In 1998 the National Board of Road Safety in Sweden initiated a media campaign to illuminate the drink-driving problem. The aim was to point out the connection between drunken driving and alcoholism. The target group was young road users in the age between 16 and 25 years. The evaluation shows that there are only small effects of the campaign. The negative attitude against drink-driving was the same after the campaign and there were only small or no differences in self reported behaviour. Nevertheless, one positive result shows that more respondents after the campaign than before would intervene in cases where friends intended to drink and drive. A reason for the small effects can be the lack of a thorough analysis of the target group and therefore were the messages constructed too broad. In this paper the results from the Swedish campaign will be discussed in the light of recent years theoretical foundations about how drink-driving campaigns must be planned to reach the aim; to decrease the alcohol-related accidents on the roads.
Drink/driver rehabilitation courses in England and Wales
Drunkenness, rehabilitation(road user), driving(veh), driving licence, driver training, England and Wales
The UK Road Traffic Act 1991 allowed certain Courts to offer drink/drive offenders the opportunity to attend a rehabilitation course. This paper examines reconviction rates over three years of more than 20,000 drink/drive offenders, 9000 of whom attended rehabilitation courses. The variation in the proportions of offenders completing rehabilitation training in 18 different Court areas provided an opportunity to model the effect of subject selection bias. Overall, taking selection bias into account, the drink/drive rehabilitation courses appear to have reduced reconviction rates by slightly more than 50 per cent.
Drinking and Driving in France in the Nineties : Can Evaluation Help Prevention ?
legislation, enforcement, driver alcohol levels, injury accidents, trends, prevention
In 1999, the french government decided to classify excessive alcohol consumption as a type of drug dependency, and the Interministerial Committee on Traffic Safety decided to halve the number of road deaths within the next five years. These decisions provide grounds for updating our epidemiological knowledge about drink-driving and accidents, and review our approach to prevention. We have tried to contribute to this process by analyzing the way the available data in the main areas which relate to drinking, driving and their consequences have changed during the nineties. The main features of the changes in legislation, enforcement, indicators and trends have been examined with reference to alcohol consumption, the results of roadside checks and alcohol-related accidents. We noticed a general decrease in accidents, and especially the series of accidents which are specifically associated with alcohol such as those involving young men under 25. The fall among men aged from 25 to 39 was much smaller. The decrease noticed among women over 40 was lesser. These trends, the scale of the associated stakes and the social groups concerned encourage discussion about new targets and preventive strategies.
Drinking and driving in Great Britain - the end of the decline?
alcohol, fatalities, injuries, drivers, epidemiology
This paper is an update of the paper presented at T'97. Trends in the percentage of fatally- injured drivers with BACs in excess of 0.8g/L and the estimated number of serious casualties involving such BACs both indicate that the pronounced decline of the 1980s finally ended in the mid 1990s. Since then, there has been little change. A Government Consultation Paper issued in 1998 proposed a package of measures included a lowering of the legal limit to 0.5g/L. The report of a Select Committee of the House of Lords in the same year reached similar conclusions but placed somewhat more emphasis on the treatment of convicted drivers with high BACs. New Government proposals on drink driving are expected in early 2000.
Drinking Drivers: A Cluster of Risk-Taking Behaviors
Accident, Traffic, Risk-Taking, Alcohol
Three of every ten Americans will be involved in an alcohol-related motor vehicle crash (MVC) at some time in their lives. Driving under the influence of alcohol may or may not be illegal depending on the driver's blood alcohol concentration (BAC). State laws also differ across the U.S.A. in terms of legal intoxication, the legality of drinking and driving among teenagers, and mandatory seat belt use among drivers and passengers. However, most experts consider drinking and driving and lack of safety restraint compliance as risk-taking behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of risk-taking behaviors among young-adult drinking drivers who were seriously injured in MVC. The data for this study were collected as part of a randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of brief interventions to decrease drinking following alcohol-related vehicular injury.
Drinking Locations and Drinking-Driving Among Underage Drinkers
Adolescents - drinking locations - drinking driving - riding with drinking drivers - collisions - determinants
This study examines adolescents' drinking locations, commonalities among these locations, and the possible importance of these locations for understanding adolescent drinking-driving, riding with a drinking-driver and collision involvement. The data were obtained from a survey of 570 adolescent drivers aged 16-18. Participants identified the locations in which they had consumed alcohol in the past 12 months. Principal components analysis of the drinking location data indicated the presence of four drinking-location factors, which were labelled Party Drinking, Sociable Drinking, Home Drinking, and Vehicle Drinking. Logistic regressions indicated that the likelihood of drinking driving, riding with a drinking driver, and collision involvement were significantly affected by drinking location factors, after demographic factors were controlled for. However, the contributing drinking location factors differed depending on the outcome measure involved.
Driver Characteristics as a Function of DWI History
alcohol, DWI, drinking drivers, hard-core drinking-driver
Successful prevention and rehabilitation efforts for DWI offenders are contingent on the creation of deterrence and intervention programs that distinguish between different types of persistent drinking-drivers. The current study (n=642) used ordinal and multinomial regression to determine relevant characteristics for comparisons between first vs. second, and second vs multiple (3 or more) DWI offender groups. Results from the ordinal logit modeling suggested linear relationships for the following: age, test refusal, driving infractions, crashes, attitudes concerning DWI, internal locus of control, family history for DWI, and score on the action subscale for the stages of change. The multinomial regression found seven significant and six marginal effects for the first vs. second comparison, and nine significant and seven marginal effects for the second vs. multiple comparison. The only common measures were locus of control and driving inhibition. The results suggest that second and multiple offenders do not necessarily have similar characteristics. Furthermore, the fact there were a number of characteristics that appeared to distinguish between the second and multiple offenders suggest there is a potential for early identification of the persistent drinking-driver.
Driver Characteristics: What Have We Learnt and What Do We Still Need to Know?
impaired driving, charactersitics, demographics, psychosocial,
(Plenary) The sex difference data suggest that females who drink and drive, display greater deviance in terms of personality measures and lifestyle behaviours. This area needs further exploration in order to develop more appropriate interventions. For example, are female impaired drivers a much more pathological group overall, or is it because sensation-seeking, risk-taking behaviours are normative for males, thus making females only appear more pathological?
Driving under the Influence of Drugs in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. Results and Road Side Survey Project
Driving under the Influence of Drugs, drug screening, cannabis, road side survey, Switzerland
In Switzerland, drivers may be tested for alcohol in blood, but also for the consumption of drugs that may reduce driving performance. In the state of Geneva, about 1200 alcohol analyses are made each year vs. 50-80 drug analyses only. This paper presents the results of drug screening from 1995 to 1999. A total of 311 urine samples have been tested for 7 parameters (amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, methadone, opiates). The results show that cannabis is the most frequent drug, after alcohol. As those 311 samples represent 5% only of all drivers tested, we are planning to make a road side survey during 6 month. During this period, all drivers stopped by the police for a breathalyzer test would be tested for urine also. The interpretation of the results should help us understand if there are more drugged drivers than thought before, and if policemen should be instructed to investigate further even if the driver is drunked.
DRUG DETECTION IN PROFESSIONAL DRIVERS AND DRIVING FITNESS, THE ROLE OF MEDICAL COMMISSIONS FOR DRIVING LICENCES AND OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE IN FRANCE
DRUG DETECTION, PROFESSIONAL DRIVERS,DRIVING FITNESS, OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE, FRANCE
The evolution of the justice decisions since several years leads the firm managers to be more and more responsibile for their professional drivers. In the same time, the occupational medicine has now an obligation of results in this field 'using all the current scientific methods to answer to the questions concerning the driving fitness of professional drivers". The scientific methods, previously limited to expensive laboratoring methods, can now be limited to the confirmation of positive results given by the simple detection tests. The cost is not anymore a limitation to the detection of drugs users among professional drivers or "problem" drivers. The use of such tests in Medical Commissions for driving licences is of a great interest in term of control of driving fitness but, also, in term of prevention to implement a "culture" of drug related problems in medical doctors, general practionners (informed of the patients problems by this way) and in occupational medicine not enough involved actually.
Drug Recognition and Field Impairment Testing: Evaluation of Trials
drugs, driving, impairment, enforcement, police, roadside testing
It is apparent from the large number of negative breath tests and the small number of drugs driving submissions, that in the case of a negative BrAC result police officers are not considering whether a person may be impaired through drugs. This may be due to a lack of skills in identifying the signs of drug use in a driver. Drug Recognition Training (DRT) for police officers has recently been initiated. Police officers from 6 forces received training in drug impairment recognition and also in the administration of a standardised Field Impairment Test (FIT). These officers then applied their training in a real world setting for a period of 2 months. As a comparison, specially trained TRL researchers have also used these techniques at 2 city locations. Young people exiting clubs and pubs were invited to provide a saliva sample and perform the tests involved in DRT/FIT. All samples (from both the police and TRL trials) have been analysed by independent forensic laboratories. Results show that the DRT/FIT techniques are very useful in identifying impairment and the likely drug group responsible. This paper reports the results of both sets of trials and provides a list of recommendations based on experiences of the police and the TRL team.
Drug use among Quebec drivers : The 1999 roadside survey
Alcohol, drugs, driving, road, survey
As part of a major undertaking to establish the role of drugs in highway collisions, the Societe de l'assurance automobile du Quebec (SAAQ) conducted a roadside survey from August 9 to August 29, 1999 in order to determine drug use among Quebec drivers. Using a two-stage stratified sampling procedure, the survey included 147 sites representative of the Quebec driving population. During both daytime and nighttime, a total of 5 507 drivers participated in the survey among which 95.9% provided a breath sample (n = 5 281) and 41.4% a urine sample (n = 2 281). Among those who refused to provide a urine sample, 70.1% accepted to provide a saliva sample (n = 2 260). Thus, 82.5% of the drivers provided either a urine or a saliva sample (n = 4 541).
Drug-driving Policy Approaches to Minimizing Risk
drug-driving, drug laws, drug-driving laws, drug recognition programs, drug policy,
harm reduction, risk minimization.
The Council of Europe s "Drugs in Road Traffic" Project (!998 I !999; Pompidou Group) identified several crucial legal, social, and political elements of minimizing the risk of drug- influenced driving behavior on European roadways. This paper summarizes the identified elements and proposes policy approaches for achieving risk minimization - whether in Europe or elsewhere.
Drugged Driving in Sweden - Effects of New Legislation Concerning Zero-tolerance for Narcotic Drugs.
Drugs; driving; zero-tolerance; legislation; DUID
The Swedish Road Traffic Offences Act was changed July 1st 1999 and a zero-limit for narcotic substances in blood was introduced. The zero-limit is not enforced for therapeutic drugs taken according to prescription by a physician, but if the driver is a danger to traffic safety by impairment from therapeutic drugs he could be convicted. There was a fourfold increase in the number of drivers apprehended on suspicion of DUID during the second half of 1999 as compared to several years preceding the new legislation. There were positive analytical findings of drugs in 91% of the blood samples from these drivers. Illicit narcotic drugs were found in 83% of the blood samples. In one third of the samples from the users of illicit drugs there were also therapeutic drugs present. The most common analytical findings were amphetamine (63%), THC (30%), diazepam (17%), morphine (10%) and flunitrazepam (7%). The full impact of the new zero-tolerance law on DUID in Sweden remains to be seen.
Drugs and Driving on Strathclyde Roads - An Update
Drugs; Driving; Trends; Scotland
In Scotland, a driver suspected of impairment is taken to the police station where a police surgeon is summoned to examine the driver to ascertain the extent (if any) of impairment. If impairment is suspected through drugs or alcohol, two 10 millilitre blood samples are obtained. One of these is given to the driver for independent analysis and the other one is given to the police. It is an offence to refuse the assessment and/or refuse or fail to provide a sample of either blood or urine. The police send the sample to the Department of Forensic Medicine and Science, University of Glasgow for analysis. All samples were routinely analysed for the presence of alcohol and drugs. Benzodiazepines, opiates, LSD, cannabinoids, amphetamines, Buprenorphine and methadone were analysed using enzyme-immunoassay. Blood was screened for acidic, basic and neutral drugs using gas liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. All positive samples were confirmed and quantified by gas
chromatography mass spectrometry. Drug levels were measured using stable isotope reference materials where available or by internal standard procedures.
Drugs and traffic safety in Slovenia
Drugs, driving, traffic legislation, drug testing, prevention
Already for a number of years we have been following the increasing problem of drug use in Slovenia. The Legal Regulation enable the police to decree a medical examination with taking of urine and blood samples and the toxicological analyses of biological material in cases of concrete suspicion of driving under the influence. The analysis of data collected in regard of drugs pattern, age, gender of participants in traffic, hour and day of offence, is a contribution to the general epidemiology of drugs in Slovenia as well an interesting review of national specifics and the dynamics of resolving of the drug problem in road traffic. A progress is made in recognition of persons driving under the influence of drugs. A advantage in our work is a small number of population of our country and the knowledge of local factors. Since the driving licence is becoming more and more a status of a general education the driving under the influence of drugs is very often one of the deeds in which the young drug abusers also appear for the first time as lawbreakers.
Drugs detected among Finnish apprehended drivers
driving, drugs, epidemiology, statistics
Driving under influence of alcohol has been forbidden since 1926 in Finland. Giving blood sample became obligatory in 1959 and legal limit (0.5 o/oo) was introduced for alcohol in 1977. Since 1950, the penal code has prohibited driving under influence of drugs. Drugs and driving remained as a minor problem during several decades. In 1998, the number of suspected drunken drivers was 22855 and the number of drivers suspected to drive under influence of drugs was 1323. Until 1985, yearly only few illegal drug cases among drivers were found. During the last years, there has been a marked increase in number of apprehended drivers driving under influence of illegal drugs (1984: n=9,1988: n=45, 1992: n=318, 1996: n=508, 1998 n=755).
DRUGS IN ROAD TRAFFIC IN AUSTRIA
Illicit drugs, drugs-and-driving, epidemiological information, drug prevention programs, Austrian Road Safety Board,AUSTRIA
Illicit drugs are not an issue that is discussed much in public. There are different political opinions but discussion is quite modest. But the most relevant point is to make people conscious of the drug problem in road traffic and enlighten youth on its consumption. For a long time Austria has not engaged in drug prevention programs and, for lack of epidemiological information, does not recognise a significant drug-driving problem. However, therapeutical and psychological countermeasures are offered by the KfV (Austrian Road Safety Board), to address the presumed problem of drugs-and-driving. For future prevention drugs prevention programmes are designed for presentation in schools and discotheques.
Drunk Driving in America - The Great Debate
driving, impaired; alcohol; traffic; drunk driving
On December 13, 1999 the National Commission Against Drunk Driving hosted a national debate on three key issues in impaired driving: 1.The .08 % Legal BAC Limit, 2.Vehicle Confiscation for DUJ, and 3. Mandatory Testing of Drivers in Fatal and Serious Jnjury Crashes. The author presents the results of the debate and its' policy implications for the control of impaired driving.