Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 08th_T1980_Stockholm
FACTORS AFFECTING THE ABSORPTION RATE OF ALCOHOL INTO THE BLOOD - A PILOT STUDY.
BSORPTION RATE, ALCOHOL, BLOOD, Australia
The object of this study was to examine some of the widely held beliefs as to the effect of various factors on the absorption of alcohol into the blood. In a series of six experiments, twelve subjects were given measured amounts of alcohol, each subject ingesting the same quantity in each experiment, but with other conditions varied.
FORENSIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CONGENERS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
FORENSIC SIGNIFICANCE , CONGENERS,ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, aliphate alcohols, Germany
1. The higher aliphate alcohols can lead to a change in the development of the blood-ethanol curve after the consumption of alcoholic beverages containing congeners. 2. From the content of congeners in blood and especially in urine samples it is possible to draw conclusions about the sort of beverages consumed. 3. It seems possible to receive information about drinking time from the presence of metabolites depending on their concentration.
FORMATION OF PYRUVATE-LACTATE INDEX AND OF GLUCOSE LEVEL IN CONTROLLED ALCOHOLEMIA
PYRUVATE-LACTATE INDEX, GLUCOSE LEVEL, ALCOHOLEMIA, NAD - MADH arrangement, Ploand
Observed decreases of glucose level and of pyruvate lactate ratio in course of alcoholemia are of relatively regular character, and support both the idea of hypoglycemic effect of alcohol, and generally decreased redox potential, probably at cell level (NAD - MADH arrangement).
Hie Ordinary Driver In His Conflict Between Drinking And Driving (Some Preliminary Findings)
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, alcohol, attitudes
Drinking practices (like frequency and quantity of drinking in general; drinking before, within and after the social gathering; frequency of drinking relevant situations) and attitudes towards drinking (vfriat we called "norm acceptance"), driving attitudes in so far as they are reflected in the respondent's judgements concerning the effect of alcohol on skills and in opinions reflecting a lesser degree of norm acceptance.
ILLICIT DRUGS AMONG ARRESTED DRIVERS IN THE BORDER REGION OF AIX LA CHAPELLE
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,ILLICIT DRUGS, blood samples, Germany
Toxicologic findings from specimens of 145 drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs and/or ethanol in the period of 1974 - 1979 in the Region of Aachen (Aix la Chapelle) are presented. 78 blood samples accompagnied with urine samples and 67 urine samples were available for analysis. Since 1977 the number of persons increased, who were arrested in border traffic, routine traffic controls and accidents. The number of this last cause was constant over the observed period.
INTERACTIONS AMONG THE CANNABINOIDS (THC, CBD AND CBN) ALONE AND
WHEN COMBINED WITH ETHANOL : EFFECTS ON HUMAN PERFORMANCE
CANNABINOIDS, ETHANOL, HUMAN PERFORMANCE, psychomotor co-ordination, Australia
In this study, the ability of THC (215 yg/kg) to produce a substantial general performance decrement across a bettery of perceptual, cognitive and motor function tests was again confirmed. Impairment was noted in tests of reaction speed, standing steadiness and psychomotor co-ordination which, although rather slow in onset, persisted throughout the experiment. The expected increase in pulse rate and in conjunctival hyperaemia, as well as the subjects' selfassessment of intoxication followed a similar time-course.
IS IT POSSIBLE TO SUBSTITUTE THE BLOOD-ALCOHOL ANALYSIS BY DETERMINING THE ETHANOL IN BREATH?
BLOOD-ALCOHOL ANALYSIS, ETHANOL, barbituric acid, Germany
To examine whether there is the possibility to get exact datas by avoiding the temperature difference we have run some experiments 12 healthy dogs of both sexes and different races were narcotized by a derivate of barbituric acid. The premedication was carried out with a phenothiazine derivate. Ethanol was given by infusion and in a quantity that the concentration later on was between 0,5 - 2 mg / ml. By a tube, which was fixed just above the bifurcatio - controlled by X-ray - we took the exhaled air in a manner that we got 3 fractions from each respiration. The exhaust valve was heated to avoid a drop of temperature.
LARGE-SCALE BREATH-BLOOD COMPARISONS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: METHODS, EVALUATION TECHNIQUES AND RESULTS
road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,BREATH-BLOOD COMPARISONS,blood analyses, blood (BAC) alcohol concentrations, Sweden
The first phase of this large-scale long-term field study clearly shows the analytical errors of the breath and blood analyses to be relatively small, especially when 3-4 samples are taken, being about 2.2% for each of them. High correlations, 0,96-0,99, between breath (BRAC) and blood (BAC) alcohol concentrations were also found. The main findings relate to the error estimate (s ) of the regression betyx ween BRAC and BAC, or the difference BRAC-BAC, both without and with taking into account the time difference between breath and blood sampling, being 60 min on an average.
MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS OF ALCOHOL IN PORTUGAL
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS, ALCOHOL, PORTUGAL
The knowledge of the c omplexity of all these problems in my country which are going to become manifest in the human person, as the answer of a very important question is worsened by social-ecnomic fact that Portugal is a very important wine producre in quantity and quality, which explains a certain lack of laws about the alcohol consumption. The studies done about alcohol effects are very deep and extensive but time goes on and alcoholism still continues being the first drug addiction in Portugal. It is very important medico-legal problem nowadays which worries us very much.
MENTAL TASK TEST AND HEART RATE LEVEL IN ALCOHOL INTOXICATION PROCESS
MENTAL TASK, HEART RATE, ALCOHOL INTOXICATION, recording polygraphy, Japan
Drinking experiment were carryed out on male payed volunteers, recording polygraphy (EKG, cardiotachogramme, pneumogramme, etc.) continuously during all the experimental course, and setting various mental tasks intermittently and repeatedly. Experiments lasted for 5 to 6 hours. Subjects at first took lunch at about 11:30, then finished a set of mental tasks, before alcohol, then they were given 120 ml of whisky, with a cup of water. After alcohol was drunk, an other series of mental task were given repeatedly, and blood letting for blood alcohol level evaluation also repeated.
METHODS OF ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF MICROBES IN BLOOD AND URINE ON ETHANOL LEVELS
MICROBES,BLOOD, URINE , ETHANOL LEVELS, microbiological examination, chromatography,isotachophoresis, England
Methods are described for the microbiological examination of preserved and unpreserved specimens from either living or dead subjects. They involve estimating the concentration of moulds, yeasts and bacteria in the specimens using direct microscopic methods and viable counting methods. Viable counting involves the use of selective and non-selective plating media and aerobic and anaerobic incubation. When significant numbers of microbes are detected representative strains are isolated and tested for their ability to utilize or produce ethanol in standard glucose- or ethanolcontaining media. Further investigations include the examination and quantitation of any other metabolic products the isolates may produce, by use of gas liquid chromatography and isotachophoresis. The results allow the analyst to es timate whether or not the observed level of ethanol is a reliable es timate of the amount consumed by the subject.
MULTIPHASIC ALCOHOL INDUCED BACKGROUND AND STIMULUS-ELICITED PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN RELATION TO BLOOD ALCOHOL LEVELS
MULTIPHASIC, ALCOHOL, STIMULUS-ELICITED, PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES, BLOOD ALCOHOL LEVELS, BAC level, alcohol biotransformation
Alcohol-induced effects have been shown to follow a multiphasic course in a number of psychophysiological measures, ranging from mood modalities, EEG and heart rate parameters to electrodermal activity. Spontaneous background activity with a triphasic time-course has followed the BAC level while stimulus-elicited responses showed an inverse biphasic time-course contrary to the BAC changes. The underlying CNS mechanisms involve changes in arousal, i.e. in the activation level, leading to differential changes in CNS reactivity, with alcohol acting as a potent stressor eliciting the changes in the activation level; the BAC level as well as the phase of alcohol biotransformation being of fundamental importance for the final effects observed.
ON THE COLLECTION OF BREATH SAMPLES FROM UNCONSCIOUS SUBJECTS BY USING THE
BREATH SAMPLES, UNCONSCIOUS SUBJECTS, REBREATHING METHOD, breath alcohol Concentration, Adrian-IR- spectrophotometer
A new technique using the method of rebreathing for monitoring the breath alcohol Concentration continuously is described. A face mask with an accompanying valve chamber to which a collection bag was attached proved to meet the requirements arising from the physiological exchange processes in rebreathed air. Practical tests in the laboratory revealed excellent agreement between the values obtained by direct measurements of the breath alcohol by means of the Adrian-IR- spectrophotometer and those from stored samples.
PARALLEL BREATH ALCOHOL CURVES AND BLOOD ALCOHOL CURVES WITH TEST PERSONS UNDER ALCOHOL INFLUENCE
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, BREATH ALCOHOL CURVES, BLOOD ALCOHOL CURVES, PERSONS UNDER ALCOHOL INFLUENCE, Germany
The experiments were divided into preliminary (series A) and general (series B) experiments. 8 persons participated in series A, 10 in series B. After being put under the influence of 1 g alcohol per kilogram body weight, a) 11 experiments at room temperature (20°C/68°F), b) 10 experiments at near freezing (4°C/39 F), and c) 3 additional experiments at a warmer temperature (27°C/81°F) were made.
PHARMACOKINETICALLY BASED FORENSIC INTERPRETATION OF BENZODIAZEPINE BLOOD LEVELS.
Road safety, drink driving,FORENSIC INTERPRETATION, BENZODIAZEPINE, BLOOD LEVELS, tranquilizer
In cases suspected of driving under benzodiazepine influence the mere detection of a benzodiazepine excretion in urine or even of a blood level does not allow us to deduce an impairment from this. We need at least information about the temporal connection leading to an event, especially if it was during the hours immediately following an ingestion of a tranquilizer.
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF HIGHER ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS
PHARMACOLOGICAL, ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS, bimanuell coordination test, Germany
With the bimanuell coordination test there were no significant diffemces in total testing time neither were there during the single testing phases apart from other individual reactions partly viewed as signs of disinhibition (seen as time shortening), partly as reduced physical skill (seen in time prolongation). An interesting result was, that each subject showed principally identical test reactions, due to the small numbers, however, it was inpossible to classify typical groups.
PORTABLE BREATH ALCOHOL ANALYZER BY NDIR METHOD
BREATH ALCOHOL ANALYZER, NDIR METHOD, breath alcohol, Japan
In Japan the authorized control of drunken drivers has effectively been conducted by means of the detector tube method to determine the breath alcohol of a driver on the roadside over the past 20 - odd years. Recently we have developed a portable analyzer of breath alcohol by means of NDIR method. They have also confirmed that it was a quite adequated instrument for instantaneous measurement of breath alcohol with high accuracy and easy operation.
PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN IN
Premarketing screening, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN,
PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH, Austria
Premarketing screening should be done useing a driver battery of laboratory tests as well in acute as in chronic studies on normals so that a wide range of functions is studied. Then drug-effects that need further clarification can be pointed out and studied by a variety of experimental methods, including simulation and in-vehicle experiments and a profile of drug effects should be set up. Also, effects on patients ought to-be investigated then. This is indispensible for the practical value of the findings.
road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, enforcement, traffic offenses, USA
Even with "soaring arrests" and "four-fold increases", current enforcement programs, however energetic, are not scratching the surface when measured against the existing problem.Law enforcement must be optimized to modify the drinking behavior of drivers by putting teeth in the messages of the media. The police and justice system which enforces most of the laws dealing with the drinking driver must be streamlined.The laws dealing with the drinking driver should be rethought and restated embracing current social science knowledge and legislative and legal trends. Alcohol in the driver should be considered an aggra-vating factor in traffic offenses rather than a primary cause. Sanctions should range from punitive to therapeutic according to individual need and evaluation techniques should be applied to provide a means of sensing change brought about by countermeasures.
Psychiatric patients, alcohol and traffic accidents.
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,Psychiatric patients, alcoho, Denmark
it has been shown that accidents of psychiatric patients - drivers or otherwise - differ from other accidents. To some extent these divergences may be explained by the different prevalence of alcoholintoxication among psychiatric patients and others. Still only a small percentage of drunken drivers are psychiatric patients and great caution must be taken when generalisations are made about the traffic safety of psychiatric patients.