Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 07th_T1977_Melbourne
The Deterrent Effect of Penalties
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents,deterrence,Penalties, Australia
The question of deterrence is closely related to the nature of the drinking driver. To the extent that drink/drivers are similar to other classes of criminal offenders, previous research would indicate that there are few grounds for optimism with respect to the effect of penalties. That the convicted drink/driver in New South Wales has much in common with the typical criminal offender cannot be doubted. There is some evidence, however, that older, higher status drink/drivers may be more likely to be overlooked in police surveillance of the offence.
The Drinking Driver: A Personality Profile
Road safety,Drink driving, road traffic accidents, Personality Profile, Australia
The results of the present study indicated that personality assessment may also be of value in the early identification of alcoholism. There would appear to be certain personality characteristics which, when occurring in a pattern, render an individual susceptible to the development of alcohol related problems. If these psychological vulnerabilities were detected at an early age (e.g. in the young drinking driver), then rehabilitative intervention may lessen the likelihood of the drinking driver becoming a problem drinker.
The Effect of Beverage Alcohol on Perceived Risk Under Realistic and Simulated Traffic Conditions
Road safety,Drink driving, road traffic accidents,Simulated Traffic Conditions, BAC, Canada
The study of the perception and acceptance of risk as a function of BAC necessitates a carefully selected experimental setting. The predominant preference for simulation techniques in the available literature shows that most investigators have been tempted by the advantages of ‘precise experimental control’ and practical convenience of measurement in artificial conditions. The few investigations into the ecological validity of laboratory findings would seem to indicate that what people say or do in the lab bears little or no relationship to what happens on the roads
The Effect of Sedative Drugs on Human
Traffic safety,Drink driving, road traffic accidents, Sedative Drugs ,Human
There were three major findings from the second experiment. Firstly, the improvement of tracking and 25° Pr D performance for caffeine. These results were in agreement with the hypothesis that arousal increases attentional selectivity. Secondly, the impairment of tracking and 30° and 35° Pr D performance for amylobarbitone was contrary to the hypothesis that decreased arousal should cause a loss of selectivity. Thirdly, only the largest dose of each drug produced significant performance changes. This result was contrary to the findings of the first experiment which showed the task sensitive to the lower amylobarbitone doses administered.
The Effectiveness of ASAP Education and
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents, ASAP Education,
Rehabilitation Programs, USA
Although there are suggestions that generalised rehabilitation referrals may be beneficial in terms of reducing subsequent violations, there is little hard evidence available to date to show that such programs are having a measurable crash reduction impact. Effects in terms of reductions in other alcohol problem areas have not yet been determined but are presently being looked at. Still, on the basis of the results already gained using driving related criteria some trends are apparent.
The Effects of a New DWI Law
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents,DWI Law, roadside surveys, social drinkers, Netherlands
If roadside surveys are performed by well-educated and well-trained police-officers, equipped with reliable detecting devices, there is little chance that only the social drinkers and not the problem drinkers will be detected. Roadside survey should not be a substitute for other ways to discover drivers who are under the influence of alcohol; they are, however, a valuable supplement to these methods.
The Effects of Alcohol on Skilled Performance
Road safety,Drink driving, road traffic accidents, alcohol, Skilled Performance, Australia
It is quite clear from our data that alcohol effects occur mainly in the later and more difficult stages of the car handling task. In the two alcohol conditions we studied, the subjects’ initial steering reactions were as rapid and appropriate as they were when they drove without consuming alcohol. It was the subjects’ ability to cope with the additional and more difficult task requirements that was affected by the alcohol we gave them.
The Effects of Two Antidepressants, Imipramine and Viloxazine, upon Driving Performance
Antidepressants, Imipramine, Viloxazine, , Driving Performance, UK
The results of the present study suggest that a semi-chronic administration of clinical doses of imipramine to normal healthy males results in a deterioration in performance on a number of basic driving skills as compared to placebo or control. Imipramine appears to increase the level of risk acceptable to the individual or conversely to reduce normal caution. This effect was shown both in the gap acceptance task and the weaving task (no. of bollards hit, proportion of correct responses to the subsidiary task). If this effect were to be transferred from the admittedly rather simulated test situation to actual driving performance on the road, then an increase in the risk of accident-involvement would occur. Viloxazine, on the other hand, appears generally to be little different from placebo and control. Whilst driving under the influence of any drug should not be condoned, it would appear that viloxazine would be a less hazardous drug then imipramine under such circumstances.
The El Cajon Municipal Court's Antabuse
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents, Court's Antabuse,
Counselling Program, driving under the influence (DUI), USA
Because of the apparent success of the El Cajon Municipal Court’s Drinking Driver Educational Program (see Appendix A), which had been established several years ago in cooperation with the University of California Extension, the State of California had decided to expend funds to examine this program. The State, in co-operation with the Court, also established a special section of the San Diego County Probation Department in El Cajon as a pilot project to furnish the judges of the El Cajon Court with probation reports for all persons convicted of driving under the influence (DUI).
The Importance of General Prevention in the
Combating of Drunken Driving
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents, Prevention, legislation
In my opinion one of the important tasks facing the legislator is to make further efforts to strengthen the negative attitude of the general public towards the use of alcohol by drivers. The purpose of the legislation must be to try to combat accidents due entirely or in part to the driver of the vehicle being under the influence of alcohol. This legislation is one of the most important parts of the general program to prevent road accidents.
The Inadequacy of Drinking-Driving Laws: a
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents, Laws, Breath Screening
The suggested TVAA statute does pose some legal procedural problems, the most difficult of which is providing a proper legal basis for requesting a chemical test. In the United States, this issue is not simply one of procedure. Taking a blood, breath or urine sample is a ‘seizure’ and is subject to the ‘reasonableness’ requirement of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. In DUI, DWI and per se cases the usual requirement is that the officer have reason to believe that the driver violated the law, that is, was under the influence, or intoxicated. Except where ‘Preliminary Breath Screening’ tests are authorised, a driver must have been placed under arrest for the drinking-driving offence before the officer may request that the driver submit to a test. But under all statutes, even those authorising preliminary screening, the standard of ‘probable cause’ must be met.
The Introduction of a Statutory BAC Limit of
50 mg/100 ml and its Effect on Drinking and
Driving Habits and Traffic Accidents
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents,BAC Limit,Driving Habits, Nethrelands
On 1 November 1974 a statutory BAC-limit of 50 m g /100 ml was introduced in the Netherlands. The effect of this has been investigated by studying the drinking and driving habits of car drivers during weekend nights and by means of available accident data. Immediately after the introduction of the new legislation, there was practically no drinking-driving during weekend nights. There was also less drinking a year later than in the years preceding the new law while, without it, an increase might even have been likely. The reduction in drinking was greater after midnight and on Saturday and Sunday nights. The percentage of women drivers increased during weekend nights after the change in the law. Among women, not only the percentage of positive BACs decreased, but high BAC-levels fell more compared with those o f male drivers.
The Matter of Administrative Adjudication for Driving While Intoxicated' First Offence
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents, Intoxicated' First offence, alcohol,highway fatalities
The problems of alcohol and highway safety are a small, but critical, part of a much larger picture: the tragedy of alcoholism. While alcoholism is generally considered a victimless crime (not so in alcohol-related highway fatalities), its effects are quite far-reaching when the family, friends and societal losses are considered. The massive increase in arrests, and the simplified process of adjudication proposed herein, not only will assist in the apprehension and reduced recidivism of the drinking drivers on the highways, but will also serve as a new means of the early identification of existing or potential alcoholics.
The Mellanby Effect in Moderate and Heavy Drinkers
Road safety,Drink driving, road traffic accidents,Mellanby Effect, Heavy Drinkers,blood alcohol level, USA
The Mellanby effect is named for E. Mellanby, who, in 1919, reported that the behavioural impairment at a given blood alcohol level was greater when the blood alcohol level was rising than when it was falling.2 While many subsequent studies have replicated this example of acute tolerance, estimates of its magnitude have been compromised by experimental problems. For example, many studies have determined blood alcohol levels (BAC) using venous samples whose alcohol level lags in time compared to arterial and brain levels during the rising BAC phase. Other studies have failed to control for practice effects since, typically, they have measured subjects sequentially on a task — first during the rising and then on the falling phases of a single administration. Clearly, during the falling period, subjects will have been more practised on the task.
The National Drug Education Program, Australia
Road safety, drug absue,, road traffic accidents, Drug Education Program, Australia
The drug abuse, in its broad interpretation, is a problem which has arisen in most countries, and most countries have attempted programs of drug education as part of their control measures. We are all steering towards a common goal, namely the control of drug abuse; no country should be working in isolation in this field, and it is by meeting and talking with one another that we can help each other.
The Problems Created by the Alcoholic Driver in a Hospital Emergency Department
Alcoholic Driver, Hospital Emergency Department,blood alcohol legislation, Australia
The enactment of the Motor (Car Blood and Breath Samples) Regulations 1971 gives evidence of an attempt to control the drinking driver problem. Hospital Casualty (Emergency Departments) are significantly concerned in these regulations. Attention to the detail of the regulations in hospital Casualty Departments assists the Police in prosecuting the culpable drinking driver who has a concentration of alcohol in the blood above 0.05%. The amount of staff time involved in the operation of these Regulations in hospital Emergency Departments is significant. Community attitudes require changing before the other objectives of the blood alcohol legislation can be achieved, viz, identification of the problem drinker and particularly the driver with a drinking problem and the offer of treatment for his problem. These regulations have not been of value in providing a clinical service to the Doctor treating the injured person.
The Reliability and Performance of Breath AIcohol Instruments in the Laboratory and in the Field
Traffic safety, drink driving,traffic accidents, Reliability, Breath AIcohol Instruments, Sweden
Systematic, controlled studies with breath alcohol instruments and detailed statistical analysis of the results from both in vitro and in vivo experiments will enable the precision and accuracy o f each specific device to be worked out. Reliable standards of performance may be laid down for classification of an instrument into a particular group, whether for quantitative (evidential) testing, semi-quantitative use, or only as a screening device. The introduction of new devices for medico-legal use must be based on a very extensive program o f testing before acceptance. This is to ensure the high degree of performance and reliability that the individual and society have the right to demand in the important task of attempting to preserve traffic safety.
The Sydney Drink-Driver Scheme: A Court
Referral Program For High Risk Drinking Drivers
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents,Sydney Drink-Driver Scheme, Referral Program, High Risk Drinking Drivers, Australia
Enthusiasm for continuation and expansion of this pilot court-referral program is considerable. Health officials and the magistry in other parts of N.S.W. are eager to commence similar operations. The prevailing sentiment may be summed: traditional sentencing procedures are not able to deter this recidivist group of drinking drivers. Not only is this group at high risk in terms of accident involvement but it is also at high risk health-wise. Possibly a healthoriented program will provide more encouraging results than our time-honoured sentencing tools. It is anticipated that research of this program will continue. As such results become available it is hoped that a better understanding of the program’s effectiveness will develop.
The Validity of Breath Testing— an Overview of the Victorian Experience
Traffic safety, drink driving,traffic accidents, Breath Testing, Australia
Over the years, several independent experts have been available throughout Australia to supply evidence on behalf of the defence. Also, staff from the Forensic Science Laboratory have always been readily available for this purpose when reasonable circumstances have warranted their testimony. In latter years the demand for these services has increased to the extent where the purpose and some advantages of breath tests have been offset by the frequent requirement of chemists to attend court.
To Promote Traffic Safety Should We Concentrate on Alcohol, on Speeding, or on Speeding Plus Alcohol?
Traffic safety, drink driving,traffic accidents, Speeding, Alcohol, DWI, USA
Better enforcement of all traffic safety laws is the best procedure to discourage DWI. Almost all alcohol-related ‘accidents’ are due to traffic law violations by the inebriated driver, particularly speeding, failure to yield the right-of-way, disobeying traffic signs, and other types of reckless driving. Better patrolling for these offences will apprehend the drunken driver, and catch him again if he drives with licence suspended. Finally, if adequate enforcement instils in him safe driving habits while alcohol-free, he may not be quite so reckless when driving with too much alcohol in his brain.