Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 15th_T2000_Stockholm
Attitudes towards driving after using cannabis alone and in combination with alcohol among young people in Melbourne
Cannabis, alcohol, younger drivers, accident risk
There is considerable debate in Australia concerning the effects of cannabis on driving and whether it has a causal role in traffic accidents. Although there is some evidence showing that cannabis impairs psychomotor performance, epidemiological studies suggest that there is no significant increase in accident risk associated with the use of cannabis alone. Cannabis used with alcohol however does appear to significantly increase accident risk. Whilst survey research has documented the proportion of people, particularly younger people, who use cannabis, there are few reports examining the frequency with which people drive while affected by cannabis. Sixty-seven cannabis users in Melbourne were surveyed and questioned at length about their patterns of cannabis
and alcohol use and driving, and their attitudes regarding driving while intoxicated. Sixty percent of these participants use cannabis at least once every two days. These participants drive more frequently after using cannabis alone than after using cannabis with alcohol. In terms of the effects of these drugs on driving skills, these participants believe that cannabis with alcohol is much more dangerous than cannabis alone. The findings from this study are discussed in relation to legislative changes around cannabis and driving planned for Victoria, Australia.
BAC Level and Alcohol Problems among Drivers Suspected of DUI
DUI offenders, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), BAC level, low sensitivity and specificity, Sweden
1.600 drivers suspected of DUI, recruited from different geographical regions of Sweden, were assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Information from the police regarding where, how and when the suspects were identified and their BAC was collected. A control group of 785 drivers not suspected of DUI was also investigated. Hazardous or harmful alcohol use according to the AUDIT was four times as common among the male and ten times among the female suspected DUI's as compared to the control drivers. More than half (58%) of the suspected DUI's had such drinking problems and 18% had severe problems. More interesting was the observation that almost half (46%) of the suspects with a BAC below the Swedish legal limit of 0.2 had such problems. Using the BAC level as an instrument for identification of drinking problems in suspected DUI's has low sensitivity and specificity. The time, place and circumstances when arrested as predictors of BAC and drinking problems were analysed. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Blood alcohol concentrations at arrest and the subsequent diagnosis of alcohol dependence
BAC; alcohol dependence; DWI; drunk driving; blood alcohol; DWI screening
This study was conducted to determine the association between arrest blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and alcohol use disorders among convicted drunk driving offenders. We analyzed data from a 5-year follow-up study of offenders who initially reported to a court-ordered drunk driving screening program in Albuquerque, NM. The sample included 1184 subjects interviewed at follow-up: 45% were male, 36% non-Hispanic white, 47% Hispanic, 14% American Indian, and 3% belonged to other races. Subjects were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, which ascertains DSM-III-R diagnosis of alcohol abuse and dependence. If the age at onset of alcohol disorders was the same as or younger than the age at screening the person was classified as having alcohol abuse or dependence at the time of screening. Arrest BAC ranged from .01 to .45 (mean = .156). Alcohol dependence at screening was found for 58% of offenders with BAC < .15, 66% of offenders with BAC .15 to .19, and 72% of offenders with BACs of 0.20 or above (p < .001). The overall accuracy of BAC of .15 or higher and .20 or higher as a screening test for alcohol dependence ranged from .45 to .64. We conclude that although arrest BAC is associated with alcohol use disorders it provides limited utility as an objective indicator of alcohol dependence.
Blood alcohol concentration in a autopsy material in practice of the Institute of Forensic Research in 1990 -1999.
blood, ethanol, gas chromatography and enzymatic, autopsy, drink driving, Poland
(Poster) Blood samples taken during autopsy in the nineties (1990-19999) were analysed for alcohol. Two analytical methods; gas chromatography and enzymatic were used for alcohol determination. During these years only slight fluctuation in the number of alcohol positive samples was observed. The majors part of blood samples were taken from men and only around 10-14% from women. In 42,6% samples from men and 75,6 from women the concentration of alcohol was below 0,5 g/l. The results 0,6-1,2 g/l, which raise the most doubts in experts during drawing the conclusions about consumption of alcohol before death, were observed in around 8% of deaths in both sexes. Very high concentrations above 4 g/l were measured in blood samples taken from 7,7% of death men and 3,2% of women. In most cases the concentrations of alcohol were in the range from 1,3 to 3,0 g/l, which is similar to these observed in alive acute poisoned persons.
Breathalyzer :Temperature measurement or not ?
Breathalyzer, Temperature measurement, Dubowski formula, ethanol equilibrates
Few years ago, one has introduced this idea : breath temperature measurement is necessary for correcting the alcohol content result in applying Dubowski formula.For applying such a correction one has to do the hypothesis than either the result of a breathalyzer is a function of outside air temperature or breath temperature is a measurement of body temperature. About the first hypothesis , we have demonstrated in 1995 than the temperatures to which a driver is exposed have a very limited influence on the measurement result. One can find experiment description in OIML Bulletin Vol XXXVI Num 1 January 1995.
Breathalyzers checking in France
Breathalyzers, legal metrological instruments , OIML Recommandation, non portable breath analyzers, France
The French legislation defines two types of limits for alcohol : one for alcohol in blood, one for alcohol in breath. These two methods are legal.Evidential Breath analyzers are used for determining alcohol concentration in breath. In France they are considered as legal metrological instruments and they are subjected to a specific legislation. The current french legislation is based on a french national standard . The specifications of this legislation are not very far from the OIML Recommandation R 126. However , the french legislation deals only with non portable breath analyzers which are used within buildings.
CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EVIDENTIAL PORTABLE ALCOHOL SYSTEM (EPAS)
Fuel cell; breath alcohol, portable, and evidential
The California Department of Justice, Bureau of Forensic Services is committed to providing a statewide portable evidential breath test (PEBT) program for DUI enforcement. We will deploy 800 Evidential Portable Alcohol Systems (EPAS) instruments for use in patrol vehicles used by the Bureau's client agencies. In addition to the instruments, the program will include technical support, training, and expert testimony to ensure the requirements of Title 17 of the California Code of Regulations for forensic alcohol testing are met. The automated design of the PEBT insures accuracy and quick distribution of results to DMV and District Attorneys through the Bureau's Statewide Alcohol Information Network (SAIN). The inherent value of this equipment over stationary instruments is the ability to provide evidential results at the time of the DUI stop. With the subject's alcohol level determined in the field, alternate transportation to the jail can be arranged keeping the officer on the street. The California Department of Justice is taking a
leadership role in being the first agency in the U.S. to provide this new technology for enforcing drinking and driving laws.
Challenges to Drug-Driving Enforcement, Measurement, Prosecution, and Prevention
drug-driving, drug-driving law enforcement, drug-driving laws, drug-driving policy, drug laws, drug policy, harm reduction, risk minimization.
Despite the existence of individual legal systems, states of economic health, and approaches to solving problems that present a tangible social cost to each of the participating countries in this project, several significant and urgent common themes and challenges have emerged from the survey. Without exception, the primary theme among the countries is that drugs seem to be everywhere in Europe, including the countries that did not participate in the study. Further, no country is immune from the effects of drugs among its young people.
Child endangerment: differences across racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. in driver alcohol use and restraint of child passengers
Alcohol impairment; safety belts; child restraint; Traffic; injuries and deaths
This study linked comprehensive, national fatal crash data with information on race and ethnicity to examine differences across groups in rates of driver alcohol use and failure to restrain children among cases of child passenger fatalities. Differentials in alcohol-related motor vehicle fatality risk were identified for children of some racial and ethnic groups, as well as on the basis of driver gender and victim age.
Circumventing the alcohol safety interlock: The effect of the availability of a noninterlock vehicle
DUI; interlocks; recidivism; repeat offenders; drunk driving
The use of alcohol safety interlocks on the vehicles of impaired driving offenders has been growing over the last decade in the United States and Canada. Current versions of this device, which requires the operator to provide a breath sample for analysis before being able to start the vehicle, have proven to be highly resistant to circumvention. However, safeguards in the inter- lock unit itself do not prevent circumvention with a noninterlock vehicle. This paper reports on a study of the effect on interlock vehicle use and the availability of noninterlock vehicles among 2260 interlock users in Alberta, Canada. More than half of the interlock program participants had access to a noninterlock vehicle in the family. Those offenders made fewer trips in the interlock vehicle; however, there was little evidence about whether they were driving the noninterlock vehicles when drinking.
Comparative study of college student's drinking patterns investigated in 1970, 1988, and 1998
college student's drinking patters, alcoholic drinks, morning drinking, Japan
(Poster) In order to take measures for college student's drinking, we studied above mentioned theme. Students of Pharmaceutical Institute in Nihon University male 80, female 95(1970) Junior Students of our college male 88, female 157(1988) and male 63, female 182(1998) were the participants of the study.
Comparing Statewide Alcohol Server Training Systems
Alcohol, server training, DUI, DWI, risk reduction, harm reduction
This study examines the effectiveness of alcohol server training legislation to prevent DUI, comparing state-mandated training in two states, training encouraged by laws providing license protection incentives for participating establishments in two states, and two states with no formal statewide system. Dependent variables measuring both implementation and effectiveness include: percent of alcohol servers trained; knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices of servers; observed server adherence to responsible practices; estimates of exiting customer intoxication; and time series analyses of DUI crash data. Survey and field data comparing mandatory, incentive, and free market states are presented.
COMPARISON BETWEEN A FOUR DRUG ROAD SIDE TESTING DEVICE, FRONTLINE AND SYVA EMITT FOR OPIATES, CANNABIS, AMPHETAMINE, COCAINE IN URINE
illicit drugs, DRUG ROAD SIDE TESTING DEVICE, OneStep InstaStrip, impaired drivers, France
(Poster) The OneStep InstaStrip 4 Drug Test is a competitive binding immunoassay in which drug and drug metabolites in a urine sample compete with chemically labeled drug compounds for limited antibody binding sites. By utilizing antibodies that are specific to different drug classes, the test permits independent, simultaneous detection of four drugs from a single sample. The approximate run time is 15 minutes.
Comparison of the effects of methadone, LAAM, and buprenorphine on simulated driving performance
Opioids, methadone, buprenorphine, LAAM, alcohol, driving performance
Methadone is currently the primary pharmacotherapy used in the treatment of heroin dependence in Australia. Levo-alpha-acetyl-methodol (LAAM) and buprenorphine are new pharmacotherapies that are being trialed as alternatives to methadone maintenance in Victoria, Australia. It is therefore necessary to determine whether clients receiving LAAM and buprenorphine treatment are subject to any increase in accident risk compared to both methadone clients and ex-user controls. Ten methadone, LAAM, buprenorphine, and ex- heroin users participated in this study which involved operating a driving simulator over a 75 minute period. The 10 methadone, LAAM, and buprenorphine clients attended four sessions; pre dose with and without alcohol, and post dose with and without alcohol. The 10 ex-users only attended an alcohol and no alcohol session. In addition to examing the influences of opioids on driving, this design also allowed for an examination of whether there are any differences in driving performance when the levels of each pharmacotherapy are at both high (4 hours after dosing) and low (just prior to dosing) levels in the body. The findings from this study are discussed in relation to proposed legislative changes in the area of drugs and driving planned for Victoria, Australia.
COT (Carbohydrate Oeficient Transferrin) and other alcohol markers in the MPA (Medical and Psychological Assessment) of alcohol offenders regranting driving licences - results of an empirical study in Germany
COT (Carbohydrate Oeficient Transferrin), alcohol offenders, Medical and Psychological Assessment,Methanol and isopropanole, Germany
305 alcohol offenders regranting their driving licence and undergoing MPA agreed to take part in a study where CDT and other newer markers (e.g. methanol, isopropanole) were evaluated in addition to routinely used alcohol markers like GGT, ASAT, ALAT and MCV. Methanol and isopropanole were elevated only in single cases. Highest prevalences were found for GGT (elevated in 26 %) and - despite a prewarning time of appr. 4 weeks - for CDT (24 %). No clear correlations between the markers were found. GGT and CDT coincided in only 6,9 %, possible explanations are different drinking patterns, half times or biochemical properties like non responding. From 53 cases with exclusively elevated CDT only 4 had a negative medical assessment, whereas the psychologists rated 30 more of these as unfit to drive (MDs and psychologists were blinded for CDT values). From 59 with excl. elevated GGT 26 had a positive medical assessment resp. a non alcoholic reason as drugs etc. was assumed, without knowledge of (mostly normal) CDT.
Criminal Profiles of Drinking Drivers in Ontario
Accident, Alcohol Intoxication, Criminals, Driving Under the Influence, Conviction, Canada
The paper reviews the criminal and driving history of a sub-sample of 100 drivers drawn randomly from 879 drivers charged with an alcohol related driving offence in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in 1996. Many of the drivers had previous unsafe driving ranging from prior drinking and driving convictions to careless driving convictions and unsafe driving behaviours. Some of the drivers identified as first time offenders under the 1996 laws were actually repeat offenders. The data also suggest drivers with a BAC in excess of 120mg are more likely to be to be convicted of a drinking and driving related criminal offence. The data also suggest that some improvement is required in communicating charges and convictions to both the criminal and transportation databases so that complete, up to date records are ensured resulting in the appropriate treatment and sanctioning of convicted drivers. More analysis of a similar 1998 file will be required to further assess some of these issues and monitor changes in the criminal law and related provincial
laws in the intervening time period.
Decision-making processes and deterrence: Investigating the psychological processes underlying the effect of enforcement on drink-driving behaviour
Decision making; driving behavior; driving under the influence; punishment
Recent developments in our understanding of decision-making processes in complex or natural environments are yet to be applied fully in the road-user behaviour context. This paper discusses the possibility that recent psychological models of decision making may be a useful addition to the deterrence model generally used to account for the effect of enforcement on drink-driving behaviour, potentially displacing rational decision-making models that are usually applied in this context. Recent evidence from a number of Monash University Accident Research Centre projects bearing on this issue is discussed. It is concluded that continued reliance on rational decision-making models as an explanation and a guide for countermeasure development is likely to be unproductive, and that there are substantial advantages to be had from considering the effects of enforcement terms of natural decision making models.
Detection of Residual Mouth Alcohol Using Electrochemical Sensors
Breath alcohol testing, mouth residual alcohol, electrochemical sensor, slope detection
Residual mouth alcohol may be present if the deprivation period after the last drink has been less than 15 minutes. This is a typical situation for roadside testing or the use of personal screeners in restaurants and bars. As a result high false positive readings may occur evoking discussions about the usefulness of such devices. Most of the instruments based on the effect of IR-absorption are able to detect this kind of interference by continuously monitoring the slope of breath alcohol concentration versus time. This can not be done with electrochemical sensors as their time constant for diffusion and electrochemical reaction is in the range of several seconds. So if a breath sample containing a very high residual mouth alcohol concentration is applied to an electrochemical sensor it would result in such a false reading. The paper describes the new method of double sampling for detecting the presence of residual mouth alcohol. The technique is especially suited for breath testers using electrochemical sensors. Results from experiments with a wall-mounted breath tester applying this new technique are presented, underlining the usefulness in preventing false readings.
Determination of pholcodine together with other opiates in urine and blood samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)
pholcodine, analytical method, urine and blood analysis
A GC-MS method for simultaneous determination of pholcodine, morphine, codeine, 6- acetylmorphine, dihydrocodeine and ethylmorphine in urine and blood is described. The method employs propionic anhydride in the presence of triethylamine to propionylate free hydroxyl groups of the opiates. Confirmation is achieved using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry in the electron impact mode.
Diagnosing Alcohol Use Disorders in Drinking Drivers
Alcoholism, AUD, DUI, diagnosis, diagnostic test
From the legal point of view the restrictive method is probably the best. From a clinical point of view, expert opinion has probably a much better diagnostic validity. These contradictory interests may be brought together when additional markers of AUD with high sensitivity and specificity are available.