Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 08th_T1980_Stockholm
ALCOHOL, TASK DEMANDS, AND PERSONALITY AFFECT DRIVING: BEWARE THE INTERACTIONS
Road safety, drink driving, ALCOHOL, TASK DEMANDS, PERSONALITY characteristics, track configurations, USA
The two experiments reported here were the first of a series of
studies to examine the effects of alcohol upon driving performance
using an instrumented car on closed-course test tracks. The series
of studies were designed to explore not only the effects of alcohol
upon driving, but also the interaction of alcohol influences with
other variables such as situational demands, personality characteristics,
track configurations, and so forth.
ALCOHOL-DRUG, INTERACTIONS, behavioral toxicology, psychoactive substances, USA
The overall impression created by this review is that most combined drug-alcohol use results in increased impairment over that from either substance alone. This may be because drugs were selected for study based on clinical impressions of increased impairment. In no drug category has there been a systematic examination of drugs to give insights into what drug characteristics are likely to be associated with a greater risk of alcohol interaction. The failure to examine the problem of alcohol-drug interaction more thoroughly reflects the resources allocated by society for this research. Regretfully, support for examination of the behavioral toxicology of drugs has failed to keep abreast of the increasingly complex demands placed on humans for man-machine interactions amidst the increasingly frequent use of psychoactive substances.
An Adjustment Demand: Resistance To
Alcoholism Treatment With A DWI Population
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, Alcoholism, DWI, USA
By the time the individual with a DWI arrest gets to a treatment agency for an evaluation, he has encountered stresses outlined under frustration, conflict and pressures. The defense oriented adjustment demand - hallmarked by hostile, angry behavioró has been forming at earlier points to defend against a number of stresses. The resistance was not formed solely by probes into problem drinking behavior done at the treatment agency. I believe alcoholism clinicians working with this mandated population must recognize both the formation of a defense oriented adjustment as it relates to the stress from a DWI arrest, as well as, the alcoholism dynamics which may underlie the DWI arrest.
AN ANALYTICAL MODEL DESCRIBING THE EXCHANGE PROCESSES OF ALCOHOL IN THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, standard parameters, breath alcohol concentration
The diffusion processes of ethanol in the respiratory system are analyzed and simulated in a model consisting of 3 compartments with lumped parameters. The areas of exchange are differentiated into the alveolar space, the upper respiratory tract and the mouth-throat cavity. The underlying processes such as diffusion through membranes, air mixing and convection of ethanol gas are approximated by numerical equations processed through a digital computer using the ventilation as loop controlling variable. The parameters of the model were optimized by direct comparison of its behaviour with measured time courses of expired breath alcohol concentration obtained in drinking experiments. From their data "standard parameters" were derived and used for studying the influence of ventilation on the breath alcohol concentration. In this way it can be shown that the mucous layer on the respiratory duct is heavily involved in ethanol exchange during respiration.
AN EVALUATION OF A PREVENTION PROGRAMME FOR DRINKING DRIVING CALLED R.I.D.E. (REDUCE IMPAIRED DRIVING' IN ETOBICOKE)
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, PREVENTION, IMPAIRED DRIVING, Canada
The ultimate change in alcohol-related accidents might not be in evidence because of the contaminations mentioned previously (see Vingilis, Salutin and Chan, 1979 for greater discussion of the contaminations), or because of the need of a longer experimental period, or the links of the causal model may not be valid. As Andenaes (1978) suggests, a reduction of drinking drivers on the road may have little effect on traffic safety. However, despite the fact that dramatic life-saving claims cannot be made, it is clear, that valuable experience and knowledge has been gained from the R.I.D.E. pilot project.
AN EVALUATION OF AN INFORMATION PROGRAMME AGAINST DRUNKEN DRIVING
Road safety, DRUNKEN DRIVING, road traffic accidents, EVALUATION,Sweden
In 1975 the Swedish Road Safety Office (Trafiksakerhetsverket, hereafter called TSV) launched an information campaign against drunken driving. The purpose of this paper is to report an evaluation of the campaign. The paper is organized as follows: first the campaign and the design of the evaluation are briefly described. Then follows an account of the findings which indicate that the information programme had no appreciable effects. Finally, I discuss possible reasons for this outcome and also what makes campaigns to be launched in spite of their generally weak effects.
AN EVALUATION OF THE INDIUM ENCAPSULATION SYSTEM FOR REMOTE BREATH ALCOHOL TESTING
INDIUM ENCAPSULATION SYSTEM, BREATH ALCOHOL TESTING, legislation, Canada
In order to promote fairness in breath testing, the Parliament of Canada passed legislation which included provision that an accused driver be offered a breath sample for independent analysis. This provision passed in 1969 has not been proclaimed into force pending the development and testing of a suitable breath alcohol preservation procedure.
AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF LIQUOR-BY-THE-DRINK ON TRAFFIC SAFETY IN NORTH CAROLINA
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, LIQUOR, BAC, USA
There has been a relatively short period of time since the introduction of 1iquor-by-the-drink in North Carolina. As the time series extends, the issue will be re-examined. Also warranting attention is the patterns in the municipalities that have adopted 1iquor-by-the-drink within counties that otherwise have not. Other topics that will receive attention is average BAC of arrested drivers, whether drivers from jur isdict ions without 1iquor-by-the drink are attracted to 1iquor-by-the-drink areas and if they are drinking there and then being arrested, and possible changes in crash severity patterns.
ANALYSIS OF DRUGS IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS: STATE-OF-THE-ART
Road safety, DRUGS, BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS, drug analysis, toxicological analysis, USA
Advances in drug analysis have not been without accompanying problems. Several of the newer techniques lend themselves to "kit" form and invite use by the tyro and those without adequate analytical toxicology background, expertise, and skills. The application of these newer, very promising methods to this demanding special forensic use will require close supervision and control by qualified professionals. The present state of practice in laboratories routinely engaged in (mostly clinical) toxicological analysis can be appreciated from the data in Tables 10 and 11, which depict recent open proficiency testing results in the United States and hence can only reflect best analytical capability in the participating laboratories there. There is clearly much room for improvement.
Automated Analysis of Alcohol in Blood
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, Automated Analysis, Alcohol, Blood, Denmark
In Denmark the number of blood alcohol determinations has increased since 1976. In 1977, 23000 blood samples were to the institute for alcohol determination, and if not all the resources of personnel should be used for the alcohol determination, an automation of the method was necessary. Now that the automation has been carried through the number of blood alcohol determinations has reached about 30000 yearly.
BLOOD : BREATH RATIOS OBTAINED IN TRIALS OF THREE BREATH ALCOHOL TESTING INSTRUMENTS.
Road safety, BLOOD, BREATH RATIOS,BREATH ALCOHOL TESTING INSTRUMENTS, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), England
There is a variation in the apparent blood:breath ratio of a large number of motorists as measured by the three different types of instrument tested. The variation increased as the number of instruments, operators, subjects and BAC increased. There was a tendency for the blood:breath ratio to be higher in the field than under laboratory conditions and higher than the calibration factor, which meant that the instruments were more likely to under-read the subject's BACs.
BLOOD ALCOHOL IN HOSPITALIZED TRAFFIC CRASH VICTIMS
Road safety, drink driving, Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents,breath-testing, TRAFFIC CRASH VICTIMS, Canada
The 196 9 amendments to the Criminal Code of Canada, which make breath-testing mandatory and of which blood testing may be an extension for those injured, precludes most of the arguments related to infringement of civil rights and liberties. The legal ramifications as they affect the prac tice of medicine, however, will need to be carefully studied and resolved for such a lav/ to be workable.
Breath Alcohol Self-Testing With An Alcohol Guard- A Laboratory Evaluation
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,Breath Alcohol, Self-Testing, BAC,Canada
When calibrated at or near 100mg/100ml BAC, the alcohol guard responded in a linear manner to simulated breath samples over the range 0 to 200mg/ 100ml. Care was taken to follow the sampling instructions closely. Extended sampling, interrupted sampling and sampling over a 10 day period, all significantly changed the BAC measurement.
Breath and Blood Tests in Sweden from February 1st, 1975 to December 31st, 1977
road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, Breath tests, Blood Tests, Sweden
Routine breath tests are a valuable tool to improve the chances of the police to detect drunken drivers. In addition the public has shown a positive attitude toward the application of the law regarding breath testing. Only a small number of drivers have expressed their disapproval over the years - generally because of lack of time. In summary then, the law regulating breath testing is of vital importance, for increasing the effectiveness of the surveillance and prevention of drunken driving.
BREATH-ALCOHOL ANALYSIS AFTER SORPTION ON CALCIUM SULFATE: IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO STUDIES
BREATH-ALCOHOL ANALYSIS,ABSORPTION , CALCIUM SULFATE,VITRO , IN-VIVO STUDIES, USA
We employed a parallel split arrangement for providing aliquots of identical volume to breath collection unit and the quantitative evidential breath- alcohol apparatus, in order to minimized experimental variables in our correlation studies. For ultimate field use, it is preferable to employ a series arrangement for the collection unit and the quantitative evidential analyser, if they are used together, with CaSO4 sorption of breath alcohol proximal to the direct analysis device.
BREATHALYZER TESTS WITH THE EQUILIBRATOR AND THE EFFECT OF ROOM TEMPERATURE.
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,BREATHALYZER TESTS, EQUILIBRATOR, Canada
The best relationship between ka/w , and solution o a temperature (in Co) for dilute aqueous alcohol solutions in the 1 5 - 4 0 Co range is: k a/w = 0.0000326 e(0.840 T - 0 .000318 T2 ). The table of expected readings given in the
Breathalyzer Instruction Manual is accurate for aqueous alcohol solutions of 3.38 mg/ml. Tests conducted with the room temperature higher than the solution temperature will give results higher than expected. Tests conducted with the room temperature lower than the solution temperature will give results lower than expected. If room temperature is not being measured, the outlet tube of the equilibrator should be checked to ensure there is no condensation present.
CANNABIS, ALCOHOL AND DRIVING: EFFECTS ON SELECTED CLOSED-COURSE TASKS
Road safety,CANNABIS, ALCOHOL, CLOSED-COURSE, marihuana, driver impairment, Canada
this experiment suggests that performance of typical driving tasks under placebo conditions can be differentiated from performance obtained under the effects of moderate doses of alcohol and marihuana, both alone and in combination. But, the differentiation could only be achieved with a high degree of confidence by combining the data from each drug condition and analyzing them using multivariate methods. It is expected that the results of this study will lead to research that will attempt to refine the hardware and analysis techniques to develop an on-line monitoring device that will be able to detect driver impairment.
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF BREATH ALCOHOL
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, traffic alcohol control, Germany
There is no sensor available for designing an alcohol breath testing instrument capable of meeting all requirements of traffic alcohol control. Therefore a combination of different systems is best to provide successful survey in different areas with different traffic densities. Our company has prepared laboratory studies on the above mentioned sensors with the aim to offer in the near future a combination system of different instruments. This system will be designed to meet the requirements of all possible applications.
CONCLUSIONS FROM A STUDY CONCERNING DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE
OF MEDICINE, Sweden
The drivers medicine consumers are made up of a group with varied motives for medicine consumption. Among them are many drug addicts persons who take medicine in overdose or who ignore warnings not to drive after consuming certain medicine. A majority of the drivers medicine consumers in Sweden take medicine in conjuction with alcohol. The most dominant in the driver medicine consumer group is the young male, aged between 20 and 29 years, who has alcohol problems and has a relatively high recurrence frequency.
DETECTION AND DETERMINATION OF ALCOHOL AND DRUGS
road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,ALCOHOL, DRUGS, USA
Four categories of instrumentation for breath analysis are discussed and the underlying chemical and physical principles are detailed. Screening devices as well as instruments for quantitative evidential use are described, their application to problems of law enforcement and their different uses, for collection and storage of samples and preliminary or semiquantitative screening in the field to exact determination in the laboratory for forensic or scientific purposes. In many countries a routine has developed where a preliminary screening is carried out by the police in the field. In some instances breath samples are collected in the field, to be analyzed at a later time in the laboratory, a procedure comparable to the taking of blood samples at the police station and sent for analysis to the laboratory. Other equipment, accessories, are described, for calibration, adjustment and testing of devices.