Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 15th_T2000_Stockholm
Twenty-five years of DUI-school as a countermeasure program and drinking-driving research
Education; DUI-school; countermeasure program
Drinking-driving is considered by many as a serious crime in terms of its prevalence and its consequences. Through the years a number of punitive and educational efforts have been undertaken to address the problem. To combat with the drinking-driving problem in Tennessee, the state has not only changed the DUI (Driving Under the Influence) law, but also have hardened the penalties for the offenders to a minimum mandatory sentence of 48 hours to a maximum of 365 days in jail, in addition to fines, court costs, and revocation of driving license. In addition to these punishments, state has adopted to use a mandatory education program for the first time offenders as a countermeasure against drinking-driving. This paper summarizes the drinking-driving research and the education program that has been conducted by the Tennessee Technological University over the past twenty-five years and discusses how this research has found practical application in the development and improvement of the DUI Countermeasure Program. The present model which involves researchers in the program development process appears to have interesting policy ramifications.
Use of Breath Test as Evidence. Comparison Between BrACs and BACs in a Driving Population
ethyl alcohol, breathalyser, BAC, road side device, drivers
This work compares the results of roadside use of the breathalyser test with those from contemporary blood samples, carried out within the framework of a program of weekend night-time checks on drivers.
Use of Motivational Interviewing to Engage and Retain DWI Offenders in Treatment
Alcohol, DWI, drinking drivers, rehabilitation, treatment
A motivational interviewing (MI) approach focused on harm reduction of substance use may provide a way for therapists to better engage and retain DWI clients in the treatment process. This study involved 25 individuals who were assessed using a MI approach. Of the 25 individuals, eight met qualifications for a substance use disorder and were referred for treatment. All eight individuals completed the treatment program. The other 17 initially did not meet criteria for a substance use disorder and were not officially mandated to treatment. However, 14 of these individuals (82%) came back for follow-up harm reduction sessions. Furthermore, within a 24-month follow-up period, none of the eight treated or 14 harm reduction session attendees were subsequently arrested for a DWI following discharge from the program. In contrast, one of the three individuals that chose not to participate in further harm reduction sessions was subsequently arrested for a DWI in the follow-up period. The findings suggest that an MI approach can be effective with DWI offenders.
Use of pharmacokinetic modelling in back calculation of alcohol concentration
Forensic toxicology, ethanol pharmacokinetics pharmacokinetic modeling, Widmark
Widmark's formula is very often used for translation a measured blood alcohol concentration into the amount of alcohol consumed or a concentration of alcohol in the moment of accident. However, experimental data indicate that the Widmark calculations are uncertain for these estimations. The aim of the study was to check the usefulness of pharmacokinetic modeling for back calculation of alcohol concentration. A group of 17 persons (12 men and 5 women) was subjected to an investigation. The persons in each experiment were given the alcohol in the form of 40% v/v vodka. The amounts of alcohol was supposed to cause the maximum concentration of 1g/L ethanol in blood according to the theoretical calculations based on the Widmark formula. The alcohol concentration in blood samples was determined by gas chromatography. The simulations were performed using two variants of the one compartment model with first order absorption and zero order elimination. The assumptions of rate of absorption (half-life of absorption 15 and 20 min) and elimination (p60 0.1 and 0.2 g/l/h) were adopted. The maximum alcohol concentrations obtained from simulation were in the range from 0.68 to 0.84 g/l according to the adopted assumption, and these values were very close to these obtained after alcohol consumption by volunteers (0.77±0.19). The performed research shows that pharmacokinetic modeling allowed the more precise estimation of maximal alcohol concentration then Widmark formula, however the calculation of consumed dose and back calculation of alcohol concentration are similar by both method.
Using Brief Interventions Following Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Crashes to Reduce Drinking and Further Injury
Accident, Traffic, Wounds and Injuries, Alcohol, self- report, and hospital records, Brief Interventions
This study is designed to determine if brief intervention strategies are effective in reducing alcohol intake and future injuries in non-alcohol-dependent young adults injured in alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Investigators are in the process of enrolling a total of 120 subjects from trauma services at two regional hospitals with 40 subjects in each of three groups. The study uses an experimental design with a Control Group (C) and two experimental groups, Simple Advice (SA) and Brief Counseling (BC). The SA group receives a health interview plus 5 minutes of advice about the importance of sensible drinking or abstinence. The Brief Counseling (BC) group receives a health interview plus 5 minutes of advice and 15 minutes of additional counseling on personal problem-solving strategies. Alcohol consumption is being quantified by the Timeline Followback method with data collection points at 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. Alcohol-related driving events and alcohol-related injuries are determined from data contained in driver abstracts, self- report, and hospital records. Preliminary results show that subjects with the most intensive intervention decreased their drinking from 5.59 drinks per drinking day at baseline to 3.05 drinks per drinking day at 12 months and 5.74 binges per month at baseline to 1.52 binges per month at 12 months. Preliminary findings show that the BC intervention may be effective in reducing drinking in the first 12 months following an alcohol-related injury.
Using Smart Card Technology to Prevent Sales of Alcohol to Minors
Smart Card Technology, driver license, alcohol retailers, persons under 21 years, drink driving, road crashes
This paper describes a project examining the implementation and effectiveness of smart card technology (i.e., magnetic stripe) that is currently used on driver's licenses as a means to provide alcohol retailers with a simple, efficient, and reliable system for verifying the age of a customer as well as the authenticity of the identification. The overall objective of the system is to help prevent sales of alcoholic beverages to persons under 21 years of age so as to reduce alcohol-related problems among youth, particularly drinking and driving and alcohol-related crashes.
Vehicle sanctions: An effective means to reduce impaired driving
Vehicle sanctions; impoundment; confiscation, immobilization
The use of sanctions that separate offenders from their vehicles has become more widespread in recent years in the United States as a tool to reduce alcohol and other drug impaired driving. These sanctions take various forms, including vehicle impoundment, confiscation, and immobilization as well as license plate confiscation. New programs now allow law enforcement officers to apply the vehicle sanctions administratively, rather than through the courts. This process is faster, more efficient, and more certain. This paper describes various programs and evaluations of vehicle sanctions in the United Sates and Canada.
Which medicinal drugs are found in people involved in road accidents
Medicines, drivers, road traffic accidents
Frequent detection of medicinal drugs among fatal (n= 159) and injury drivers (n=395) have been documented in two different Norwegian studies. Benzodiazepines, mainly diazepam and flunitrazepam, represented the medicinal drugs most frequently detected, with higher occurrence compared to amphetamines and cannabinoids. These medicinal drugs are also among the most commonly detected compounds in blood samples from Norwegian suspected drugged drivers. Most of the drivers are apprehended due to accident, reckless or dangerous driving. Data records containing results from blood analyses stored at the National Institute of Forensic Toxicology, have been compared to data records from Statistics Norway, containing information from all traffic accidents, to
elucidate drug related accidents. The results from the Norwegian studies have been compared to epidemiological studies on accident drivers from other countries.
Which medicinal drugs impair driving performance? An overview of the European experience.
Medicines, DUID, impairment, categorisation
In recent years, several initiatives to study the phenomenon of driving under the influence of medicines were taken in Europe: In this contribution, the most significant initiatives will be discussed. In particular, the latest epidemiological studies, risk-assessment studies, literature studies and reviews will be mentioned. Additionally, the different categorisation systems published or in use in Europe will be discussed.
Youth Involvement In Traffic Accidents In Japan-New Trends
Lower BAC limit, Graduate Licensing Program, New policies.
Alcohol use and abuse among Japanese youths are sources of widespread concern to the public. An estimated 12% have problems with alcohol and about 1 out of every 25 adolescent's will eventually become an alcoholic. According to a recent national survey, 88% of high school seniors reported that they had tried alcohol. Although all of these students are under the legal drinking age, experience with alcohol is rampant. Motor vehicle traffic accidents are a leading cause of death among children, adolescents and young adults between 5 and 24 years of age, and more than 14,000 people were killed in such accidents according to the 1998 vital statistics in Japan. Unlike major causes of deaths such as malignant neoplasm's and heart diseases and despite the critical problem in public health, there are few epidemiological studies on youth involvement in traffic accidents in Japanese society. This note suggests that traffic related problems among youths in Japan as a reflect of differential inducements to drink and drive for example in new patterns of alcohol use and high dependence on the private automobiles. The problem may also reflect the incompetence of alcohol control policies, not only the traditional ones based on criminal law but also those based in alcohol policy, transportation policy, and other approaches. Those persons and organizations in position to influence new legislation's should consider enactment of regulations such as, lower legal BAC limit, night time curfews, graduate licensing systems and abolition of two hundred thousand (200,000) alcohol vending machines to prevent youth traffic accident in Japan.
Zero-limit versus Impairment- New approaches for drugs and driving in Germany
DUID, Zero-limit, Impairment, Drugs of Absue, Administrative offnese, Criminal offense
In addition to the DUID as a criminal offense (§ 316 penal code), in August 1998 a new law came in Germany into action, sanctioning people driving under the influence of certain illicit drugs. It is an administrative offense (§ 24a of Road Traffic Regulations) to drive under the influence of: Amphetamine, MDMA, MDE, Cannabis, Cocaine, Heroin, and Morphine. The law is fulfilled if one of these drugs (analytes for Heroin and Cocaine are Morphine, and Benzoylecgonine respectively) is detected in blood. The police officer has to classify the offense. His decision is based on the arousal (accident, unsafe driving maneuver, behavior at checkpoint), and the focus of suspicion (impairment or only signs of actual drug use). The level of evidence must show impairment in cases of § 316, whereas for § 24a the decision limit to order a blood sample is much lower.
BACs of University Students Returning Home at Night
Automobile driving; alcohol drinking; accident prevention; pedestrian
To study alcohol use and transportation choices by university students, we interviewed a random sample of university students as they returned to their residences late at night (10 p.m. to 3 a.m.). Interviews were conducted on all nights of the week. As part of the interview, a breath alcohol measurement was obtained using a portable breath test device. Of 1,846 persons interviewed, 1,790 provided a breath measurement. Seventy-two percent had zero BACs and only 2% of students had very high BACs (> 0.15%). BACs were highest on Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights. The majority of students interviewed were pedestrians (68%); the remainder were drivers (19%) and passengers (13%). Drivers were least likely to have BACs exceeding 80 mg/dL (2%), followed by passengers (10%) then pedestrians (17%). Among those below the legal drinking age (for whom the BAC limit when driving is zero), 7% of drivers, 20% of passengers and 27% of pedestrians had a non-zero BAC (> 0.02%). Persons who identified themselves as designated drivers were somewhat less likely to have BACs above 20 mg/dL and 80 mg/dL than those who were not designated drivers, but these differences were small. About a quarter of designated drivers had BACs of 20 mg/dL or higher.
CLINICAL SIGNS OF DRUG USE IN DRIVERS,COMPARISON BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT TESTBATTERIES, THEIR INTEREST, THEIR LIMITSAND THEIR FUTURE EVOLUTION
impairment, behaviour, drugs
(Poster) Generally, the countries which began to use simple tests of impairment evaluation by policemen have observed that the policeman got a rather efficient use of those tests and the natural tendancy, after some years, was to complete the test batteries used with more complex tests. This demand from the police officers is frequently observed, after the first difficulties or refusal. However, this evolution to an increasing complexity of test batteries faces different difficulties or limits.
Strategies for Avoiding Driving While Intoxicated and Riding With Intoxicated Drivers in At-Risk Barroom Drinkers
Driving While Intoxicated, Riding with Intoxicated Drivers, DWI Prevention, Designated Drivers, Safe Rides, Barroom Surveys
(Poster) An important question regarding the efficacy of alternative transportation in preventing DWI and Riding with Intoxicated Drivers (RID) is whether at-risk drinkers actually use such risk reduction strategies. Previous research by the current authors showed that users of designated drivers (DDs) and free safe (taxi) rides (SRs) tend to be heavy drinkers, plus they report higher levels of DWI and RID than other drinkers. In a related study, relative to moderate and light drinkers, heavy drinkers also reported more DWI and RID plus more or an equivalent amount of behavior to avoid DWI and RID. The current study examines this issue further in a sample of 364 barroom drinkers. Heavy drinkers were more likely than other drinkers to report DWI, and as likely as moderate drinkers and more likely than light drinkers to report RID.