Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 15th_T2000_Stockholm
The Electronic Driving Licence Will Reduce Driving Under The Influence Of Drugs
Electronic, driving, license, drugs, unlicensed, suspended
During the last seven years I have been engaged in the development of an electronic driving licence. The electronic driving licence (EDL) is based on a smart-card with a sophisticated chip inside. This EDL-card is well suited as an ignition key to the car replacing the regular mechanical key system and wheel lock. If the driving licence simultaneously serves as the ignition key to the car it will prevent unlicenced drivers from having access to cars. Statistics show that 60% of the drunken drivers on the road are repeat offenders and most of them do not have a valid driving licence. It was suspended at the previous drunken driving offence.
The Hardcore Drunk Driving Offender
Driving under the influence; Psychopathology; Incarceration; Hardcore DUI Offenders;
Diagnostic Interview Schedule; Substance-related Disorders; Alcoholism; Ohio
The inmate population represented in this sample can be characterized as one that is profoundly challenged. Virtually all of the sample could be described as alcohol dependent, almost two-thirds manifest a concurrent substance abuse disorder, and the rates of psychiatric illness are many times that which could be found in a general population sample. Additionally, as a group, educational achievement was low with only a single subject reporting any college experience and 43% indicating less than a high school education. This is a population that has had much involvement with the criminal justice system. In addition to their multiple arrests/convictions for alcohol and/or drug related vehicular offenses, 61% of the sample reported arrests for disorderly conduct/public intoxication. The average number of such arrests was 5.5 times.
The impact of graduated driver licensing restrictions on young driver crashes in New Zealand
Adolescents, automobile driving, licensure, legislation, accidents, evaluation
Graduated driver licensing (GDL), as introduced in New Zealand in 1987, included three main driving restrictions: a night-time curfew (10pm-5am), no carrying of young passengers, and a blood alcohol limit of 30mg/100ml of blood. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact that these restrictions had on young driver crashes. For this study the New Zealand Police traffic crash reports were linked to the national hospital inpatient records (1980-1995). Multivariate binomial regression was used to compare car crashes involving a young driver licensed before the GDL (pre-GDL, n=2252) with each of the graduated licence groups: full GDL (n=1273); restricted licence (n=980); or learner licence (n=399). The results showed that, compared to the pre-GDL group, restricted licence drivers had fewer crashes at night (p=0.024), fewer involving passengers of all ages (p=0.034), but did not differ where alcohol was suspected. The learner licence drivers had a higher proportion involving passengers (p=0.023), but night-time and alcohol suspected crashes did not differ. The full GDL drivers did not differ significantly from the pre-GDL drivers for any of the factors examined. These results suggest that the graduated driver licensing restrictions, especially the night-time curfew, have contributed to a reduction in crashes involving young drivers. Particularly encouraging were the results for the restricted licence drivers who are the licence group most affected by the restrictions.
The Impact of Mandatory Versus Voluntary Participation in the Alberta Ignition Interlock Program
interlock program, DWI offense, voluntary or mandatory approach, reducing recidivism, Alberta
Research has demonstrated that participation in an interlock program significantly reduces the likelihood of the offender committing a subsequent DWI offense at least so long as the device is installed in the vehicle. Despite the growing number of jurisdictions that allow interlock programs and the demonstrated success of these programs, the proportion of DWI offenders who actually have the device installed is minimal. In an effort to increase the proportion of offenders using interlocks, some jurisdictions require offenders to install an interlock as a condition of license reinstatement whereas others offer offenders a reduction in the period of hard suspension if they voluntarily install an interlock. It is not known whether the voluntary or mandatory approach results in more interlock participants or which approach is more successful in reducing recidivism.
The Impact of the Administrative Driver's Licence Suspension Law in Ontario
alcohol drinking, drinking-driving, administrative driver's licence suspension,
fatalities, collisions, evaluation, population survey
Ontario introduced an Administrative Driver's Licence Suspension Law (ADLS) on November 29, 1996. This study aimed to evaluate public awareness of the law, it's effects on drinking- driving behaviour, and it's impact on alcohol-related fatal collisions. Knowledge and behaviour data were obtained from the Ontario Drug Monitor, a monthly cross-sectional general population survey of Ontario adults, collected during 1996 and 1997. Logistic regression analyses were conducted on the impact of the ADLS intervention on self-reported drinking-driving and knowledge of the ADLS. After introduction of the ADLS, knowledge of the sanction increased significantly and self-reported driving after drinking decreased significantly. Time series analyses of fatally injured drivers with a positive blood alcohol level demonstrated a significant intervention effect of the new law. These data suggest that there was widespread public awareness of the new law, a corresponding drop in drinking-driving behaviour, and a resultant decline in alcohol-related collisions. Preliminary analyses also indicate that the deterrent impact of the law was greatest among lighter or more moderate drinkers.
The Incidence of Drugs in Road Accident Fatalities in Great Britain
drugs, fatalities, drivers, epidemiology
Between 1985 and 1987 the Transport Research Laboratory carried out a study to measure the incidence of drugs in road accident fatalities. This showed that the incidence of prescription drugs (5.5%) and drugs of abuse (3%) was relatively low in comparison to alcohol, which was found in 35% of cases. Much recent evidence, however, has suggested that illicit drug taking in the community as a whole has increased considerably since 1987, but there was little evidence on whether this increase has been reflected in the driving community. The Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) therefore began a new study, in October 1996, to look at the current incidence of drugs in road fatalities. This three-year study was completed in October 1999 and the results from more than 1100 cases show that illicit drug taking (mainly cannabis) has increased by a factor of five since the earlier study. Over the same period, the incidence of medicinal drugs and alcohol has remained more or less the same.
The New York City Police Department DWI Forfeiture Initiative
Vehicle forfeiture, drunk drivers, injury prevention, DWI fatalities and accidents
This paper describes the New York City Police Department's Driving While Intoxicated Forfeiture Program. Using existing laws, the NYPD has begun to commence forfeiture actions of the automobiles driven by drunk drivers. The goal of the program is to save lives, and prevent injury and property damage. The relevant data indicate that the program has contributed to a reduction in DWI fatalities and accidents.
The Observational Threshold of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus
Alcohol, field sobriety tests, horizontal gaze nystagmus
Laboratory studies of field sobriety tests, which were conducted during the 1970s, identified horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN) as a sensitive and reliable marker of alcohol at BACs of 0.10% and above (Burns & Moskowitz,1977; Tharp, Burns, Moskowitz,1981). In a more recent study, McKnight, Langston, Lange, and McKnight (1995) found that HGN remains a valid field sobriety test at 0.08% BAC. The observational threshold of HGN, however, has not been established. A study was undertaken to further examine HGN at 0.08% BAC and to determine the lowest BAC at which its signs appear reliably. Measurements of the angle of gaze (AOG) at the onset of nystagmus were obtained with 48 subjects, who had been given alcohol to produce peak BACs in the range 0.02% - 0.12%. Observations were made with the EM/1, an instrument which displays a magnified video image of subjects' eyes. The obtained data provide further evidence of the reliability of HGN as an index of the presence of alcohol at 0.08%. Further study will be required to establish a BAC threshold for HGN.
The Quebec Graduated Licensing System for Novice Drivers: A Two-Year Evaluation of the 1997 Reform
Young drivers, new drivers, alcohol, crashes, graduated licensing.
Since July 1997, the revised Quebec graduated licensing system (GLS) encompasses a learning period (accompanying rider, zero BAC and ceiling of 4 demerit points) of 12 months for all new drivers, with the possibility of reducing it to 8 months by taking a driving course, and a probationary period (zero BAC and ceiling of 4 demerit points) of two years applying only to drivers under 25 years of age. Prior to the 1997 reform, the Quebec GLS had only minor restrictions (ceiling of 10 demerit points instead of 15 for a regular licence). This paper presents an evaluation of the 1997 reform using a before/after design (2 years/2 years) with a comparison group. The record of the GLS group (learner and probationary) is compared to a non-GLS group composed of all young drivers (18-24 year-olds) holding a regular licence. Using the same design, preliminary results have shown that the net one-year effect of the revised GLS was to reduce fatalities by 32.8% and injuries by 15.1%. The two- year evaluation found a 4.9% reduction in fatalities and a 14.4% reduction in injuries. Possible reasons for this disparity between results are discussed and for the first time, the study evaluated the impact of Zero Alcohol on collision involvement.
The Real Risk Of Being Killed When Driving Whilst Impaired By Cannabis
Accidents, countermeasures, fatalities, THC, cannabis, risk-taking, epidemiology
Until recently, Australian studies of drivers killed have only identified drivers who were cannabis users by measuring Carboxy- THC, which can remain detectable in body fluids for weeks after cannabis use. Since impairment after cannabis use only persists for hours, the bulk of the cannabis users identified by Carboxy- THC would not be impaired, and responsibility studies did not show an increased risk of an accident for this group. These studies identified drivers who had consumed cannabis, not necessarily drivers who were impaired by cannabis.
The Relationship Between Alcohol-Related Medical Conditions and Road Crashes
Drinking Behavior; Driving Behavior; Alcohol Abuse; Addiction; Hospital; Prevention
Many interventions have been implemented around the world in an attempt to deter drink drivers and prevent road crashes. However, these programs may not always target high risk offenders. If high risk drivers could be identified prior to receiving convictions for drink driving, or prior to being involved in a crash, they could then be targeted for a brief road safety intervention. For example, such an opportunity would occur when a road user was in hospital receiving treatment for an alcohol-related problem. The aim of this study was to measure the association between alcohol-related medical conditions and road crashes. This was achieved through a longitudinal analysis of the hospital records of people first admitted to hospital for an alcohol-related condition over the period 1980 to 1997 in Western Australia. During this period there were 41,537 people admitted to hospital at least once for an alcohol-related medical condition. About 11.7% of these people were also involved in a road crash requiring hospitalisation. However, only 23.6% were admitted to hospital for a road crash after being admitted for an alcohol-related medical condition. The remainder were either involved in a crash prior to being admitted to hospital for an alcohol condition, or were treated for an alcohol condition at the same time as being involved in a road crash. The implications of these finding for early drink driving intervention will be discussed.
The Role of Alcohol, Cannabinoids, Benzodiazepines and Stimulants in Road Crashes
Alcohol; cannabinoids; benzodiazepines; stimulants; injured drivers; culpability; drug
Blood samples collected from 2500 non-fatally injured drivers involved in road crashes were analysed for the presence of alcohol, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines and stimulants. Evaluation of the causal role of the drug in the crash was based on culpability analysis using data collected at the crash scene. A total of 22.6% of drivers tested positive for at least one drug including alcohol. Either alone or in combination with other drugs, alcohol was found in 12.4% of drivers, cannabinoids in 10.8%, benzodiazepines in 2.7% and stimulants in 1.3%. A small number of cannabinoid-positive drivers tested positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the main active ingredient in marijuana) while most drivers tested positive for the inactive metabolite. A clear causal role was found for alcohol, with increased culpability rates at high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Benzodiazepine use was also associated with higher culpability when those with very low concentrations were excluded. Consistent with earlier research, THC was not associated with increased culpability. Relatively few drivers tested positive for stimulants and there was no clear evidence of greater culpability. Overall, alcohol plays the greatest role in road crashes, but benzodiazepines also have a significant effect.
The Role of the Drinking Pedestrian in Traffic Accidents
alcohol, pedestrian, epidemiology
As countermeasures against drink driving achieve success, so the relative importance of the problem of drinking pedestrians tends to increase. The results from three linked studies are presented. A survey in Cardiff interviewed and breath tested 1,663 adult pedestrians at five sites during the period 1700 to 2359. The incidence of drinking pedestrians (BAC > 0.09g/L) rose from 4% at 1700 to 71% at 2300. Controlling for time of day, the incidence was largely unrelated to age, sex or socio-economic group. A study of injured pedestrians in Cardiff found that 46% of those tested for alcohol had BACs above 0.09g/L and 32% had BACs over 1.5g/L. Control data obtained from roadside interviewing of non-accident-involved pedestrians was used to produce relative accident risks. For BACs above 2.0g/L, the relative accident risk was more than 20 times that for a pedestrian at 0g/L. A study of fatally injured adult pedestrians in the West Midlands found slightly lower incidences of alcohol (33% above 0.09g/L and 22% over 1.5g/L). More males than females had been drinking and their BACs were higher. The relative accident risks were comparable to those found for non-fatally injured pedestrians in Cardiff. The implications of these findings are assessed.
The Swedish Alcohol Ignition Interlock Programme
Alcohol Ignition Interlock Programme, self-selection factors, DWI offenders, Sweden
With regard to the self-selection factors, it is of interest to examine attitudes to the interlock programme among those DWI offenders not taking part in the programme. This was conducted through a questionnaire, and preliminary results suggest the high cost to be one important factor behind the reluctance. The programme started fairly recently and incorrect/misleading information may also be a contributing factor explaining the low level of participation. It is somewhat surprising that only a few of those not participating in the programme find the strict medical regulations too rigid. However, the information given by this group of DWI offenders who "prefer" so-called hard suspension has to be interpreted with caution. Nonetheless, information from these offenders that they find being without a driving licence a source of considerable problem seems to be reliable.
The UK High Risk Offender Scheme: Data analyses
drunkenness, offender, recidivist, driving licence
In the United Kingdom, the High Risk Offender (HRO) Scheme covers those drink-drive offenders who are felt to pose a particularly high risk to other road users or themselves because of the severity of the offence committed. This paper (PA 3545/99) presents analyses of an extract of the DVLA (Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency) driver licence file. It explores the number of drivers who have become HROs, their length of disqualification and rates of reconviction.
The worldwide decline in drinking and driving: has it continued
Trends in drinking and driving; worldwide drinking and driving
There were dramatic decreases in drinking and driving in the industrialized world in the decade of the 1980s. That decline did not continue in the early 1990s. In fact, in most countries the declines reversed in the early 1990s and drinking and driving began to increase. By the middle of the decade the increases stabilized and the rates began to decrease. These current decreases, which appear to be continuing, are much less dramatic then the decreases of the 1980s. This paper summarizes the nature of and the trends in drinking and driving in Canada, France, The Netherlands, Germany, Great Britain, Australia and the United States and the planned initiatives for combating the problem in each of the countries.
Toluene And The lntoxilyzer 5000: No Response To Concentrations Found On Human Breath
Intoxilyzer 5000, Breath Alcohol Concentration, toluene concentration, post exposure
The response of the Intoxilyzer 5000@ (series 66, 3 filter) to known amounts of ethanol vapor, toluene vapor and a mixture of ethanol and toluene vapors was determined. The ethanol concentration approximates a Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) of 0.08 gm/210 L. The toluene concentration used was approximately 5 times that reported to be found on the breath of test subjects 30 minutes post exposure. There was no response by the Intoxilyzer to the toluene alone and there was no added response to the ethanol/toluene mixture response over that of ethanol alone.
Trajectories of Adolescent Risk Factors over Time as Predictors of Subsequent Driving Behavior
Adolescence; Automobile driving; Accidents, traffic; Alcohol drinking;
Interpersonal relations; Risk factors
Young people's alcohol use, friends' involvement with alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, and tolerance of deviance increase during adolescence and have been shown previously to be important predictors of various health risk behaviors In this study, examining the trajectories of these measures as predictors of driving behavior has shown that, both the slope of each measure over time, and the last value prior to the onset of driving contributed to the predicted probabilities regarding serious offenses For serious crashes the last value was more important The implications of these findings should encourage those who work with young people to maintain their focus on preventing young people's alcohol use, involvement with friends who use alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure and acceptance of deviance, even when these may have been problems at some point in time These analyses, however, addressed only the separate, not the combined, effects of the predictor variables While this type of analytic approach could be used with other predictor variables, the results found in this study serve as a reminder of the personality and behavioral factors which prevention programs need to address
Trends in Drinking-Driving Fatalities in Canada -Progress Continues
Trends, drinking-driving, alcohol-impaired driving, driver fatalities, alcohol-fatal crash problem,
The scope and intensity of activity directed at the problem of drinking and driving was unprecedented in Canada during the 1980s Public and political concern engendered a wide range of initiatives and, consistent with this activity, corresponding declines in the magnitude of the problem itself occurred Between 1981 and 1989, the percent of fatally injured drivers with blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) in excess of the legal limit dropped by 31% The decline observed in the 1980s was interrupted rather abruptly and significantly beginning in the 1990s when the percent of fatally injured drivers who were drinking increased Since 1993, however, there has been a further decline in the incidence of fatally injured impaired drivers that has continued through 1997 The level achieved in 1997 (31% of fatally injured drivers with BACs over the legal limit) was the lowest point reached in the past three decades Recent changes in the magnitude of the alcohol-fatal crash problem, however, have not been uniform across different groups of fatally injured drivers This paper examines these trends in the alcohol-fatal crash problem in Canada
Trends in Impaired Driving in the United States: Progress or Plateau?
impaired driving, trends, deterrence, prevention strategies, alcohol control, alternative transportation, repeat offenders, young drivers, state laws, sobriety checkpoints
For more than a decade, rates of alcohol-related crashes have been declining in the United States. Alcohol-related fatalities dropped from 23,626 in 1988 to 15,935 in 1998, a 33 percent reduction. The rate of alcohol involvement in traffic crashes has also declined - from 50 percent in 1988 to 38 percent in 1998. While there have been slight fluctuations in the general declining numbers of alcohol-related fatalities since 1982, the ratio of alcohol-related fatalities to non-alcohol- related fatalities has steadily decreased from 1.34 in 1982 to 1.00 in 1988 to 0.62 in 1998. This progress has been attributed to stronger laws, tougher enforcement and adjudication, and changes in social norms, among other factors. With what groups has the most progress been made? What populations present the most serious continued problems? And, most importantly, what must be done to continue the progress that has been made?