Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 20th_T2013_Brisbane
A Comparison of Drug Use by Fatally Injured Drivers and Drivers at Risk
road safety, Drug Use, Fatally Injured Drivers, road crashes, Cannabis, Canada
Research has documented the prevalence of drug use among drivers involved in serious crashes. Although the overrepresentation of alcohol among drivers involved in serious crashes has been repeatedly demonstrated in numerous studies, relatively few studies have attempted to determine the magnitude of the risks posed by drivers who have used drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which drugs may present a risk to road safety by comparing the prevalence of drug use among drivers at risk and drivers who die in motor vehicle crashes. Data on alcohol and drug use from coroners’ and medical examiners’ files on drivers of motor vehicles who died in crashes were compared with data on drug use among drivers who participated in roadside surveys in British Columbia, Canada conducted between 2008 and 2012 as a means to help establish the contributory role of drugs in driver fatalities. The results show increased probability of fatal crash associated with the use of alcohol or drugs and greatly increased risks associated with the use of alcohol and drugs in combination. Alcohol remains a primary substance of concern for road safety. Cannabis also presents increased risks for drivers as does the combined use of cannabis and alcohol. These findings will contribute to program and policy initiatives to improve road safety.
A comparison of medicinal drugs detected in blood of suspected impaired drivers with data on the use of driving impairing medicines in The Netherlands
medicinal drugs, impaired drivers ,,driving impairing medicines,Medicinal opiates , The Netherlands
This study presents the analytical results of blood samples of suspected impaired drivers during a four year period and compares the medicinal drugs detected in the blood samples with the use of these driving impairing medicines in The Netherlands. In 2009-2012, the blood alcohol concentrations of 9047 samples have been determined and 82% of the samples tested positive. In addition, 3038 blood samples have been analyzed for drugs and in 94% of the cases drugs were detected. Medicinal drugs were detected in 33% (1010/3038) of the drug cases, including poly-medicinal drug use in 37% (370/1010) of the positive medicinal drug cases. Anxiolytics have the highest prevalence of 19% (573/3038) in the population of suspected impaired drivers. Followed by hypnotics and sedatives (13%), medicinal opiates (6.9%), antidepressants (4.5%) and antiepileptics (1.1%). The prevalences of these medicinal drug groups in the general Dutch population are about two or three times lower for anxiolytics (6.9%), hypnotics and sedatives (5.5%), and antiepileptics (0.34%), compared to suspected impaired drivers. Medicinal opiates have about the same prevalence in both populations, which could be a result of the criteria used for the categorization of these substances.
A follow up sample of first time drink driving offenders: How many drink drive post offence?
drink driving offenders, post offence, injury prevention, random breath testing (RBT), blood alcohol content, Australia
Drink driving remains an important issue to address in terms of health and injury prevention even though research shows that over time there has been a steady decline in drink driving. This has been attributed to the introduction of countermeasures such as random breath testing (RBT), changing community attitudes and norms leading to less acceptance of the behaviour and, to a lesser degree, the implementation of programs designed to deter offenders from engaging in drink driving. Most of the research to date has focused on the hard core offenders - those with high blood alcohol content at the time of arrest, and those who have more than one offence.
A national evaluation of graduated driver licensing laws in the United States
graduated driver licensing laws (GDL), young novice drivers, fatal crash, Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), United States
Graduated driver licensing (GDL) laws now exist in all 50 states and the District of Columbia in the United States. These GDL systems are designed to reduce the exposure of young novice drivers to risky situations (such as late-night driving and driving with other teen passengers when alcohol is likely to be involved). Our aims were to determine if (a) GDL laws reduce fatal crash involvements of novice drivers; (b) nighttime and passenger restrictions are effective components, especially in reducing fatal crashes involving young drinking drivers; and (b) there are differential effects of GDL laws based upon driver race and ethnicity. A longitudinal panel study and logistic regression analyses were used to meet the aims. The 1990-2007 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data sets were used to determine if changes in crash involvements of young drivers and young drinking drivers were associated with the adoption of GDL laws. GDL laws with stricter compo-nents showed stronger relationships to fatal crash reductions (from 8 to 13%), and laws with weak components showed no reductions in crash involvements. Nighttime restrictions were found to reduce 16- and 17-year-old driver involvements in nighttime fatal crashes by an estimated 10% and 16- and 17-year-old drinking drivers in nighttime fatal crashes by 13%. Passenger restrictions were found to reduce novice driver involvements in fatal crashes with teen passengers by an estimated 9%. GDL reductions were largest for young White drivers, followed by African-Americans, and then Asians, with no significant reductions for young Hispanics. States without the nighttime or passenger restrictions in their GDL laws should strongly consider adopting them. The differential effects of GDL laws based on the race and ethnicity of young drivers needs further research.
A new neuropsychological instrument measuring effects of age and drugs on fitness to drive: development, reliability, and validity of MedDrive
neuropsychological instrument, fitness to drive, minor cognitive impairment (MCI), Switzerland
Relying on systematic reviews of neuropsychological tests and driving performances, we conceived four new computed tasks measuring: visual processing (Task1), movement attention shift (Task2), executive response, alerting and orientation gain (Task3), and spatial memory (Task4). We then planned five studies to test MedDrive's reliability and validity. Study-1 defined instructions and learning functions collecting data from 105 senior drivers attending an automobile club course. Study-2 assessed concurrent validity for detecting minor cognitive impairment (MCI) against useful field of view (UFOV) on 120 new senior drivers. Study-3 collected data from 200 healthy drivers aged 20-90 to model age related normal cognitive decline. Study-4 measured MedDrive's reliability having 21 healthy volunteers repeat tests five times. Study-5 tested MedDrive's responsiveness to alcohol in a randomised, double-blinded, placebo, crossover, dose-response validation trial including 20 young healthy volunteers.
A qualitative investigation of drug use among Pakistani road users
Road safety, road crashes, drug use, illicit drugs, qualitative investigation, Pakistani road users
Interviews suggested widespread use of illicit drugs, particularly among bus, truck and taxi drivers. Reasons for drug use included recreational purposes, stimulants during long driving episodes, and substance addiction. Furthermore, the use of drugs and any association with road crashes was generally viewed as linked to fatalism rather than to any fault of an individual. In other words, people did not believe there was an association between drug use and road crashes, even if they had personally experienced such. Police knowledge of drug use among drivers was evident, although there is no formal drug driving testing regime in Pakistan.
Acceptance of rehabilitation with alcohol interlock support for DUI offenders in Germany
Drink driving, rehabilitation, alcohol interlock, DUI offenders Germany
Just below 80 % of the subjects declared that they would participate in the alcohol interlock project. Further 18 % were still undecided. After knowing the costs, half of the interviewees said they would participate; still more one quarter was undecided. 21 % declined. Even from the group of low-income earners, half declared to be willing to participate in the project. 23 % indicated to be able to achieve a higher income. 76 % of the subjects indicated time savings due to the participation in the alcohol interlock project, i.e. nearly two hours daily on average. It can be expected that, with the establishment of the regulatory administrative framework that a substantial part of the alcohol-influenced drivers would decide to participate in an alcohol interlock program.
Adolescents to Adults: A Long-term Study of Impaired Driving
Drink driving, Impaired Driving, drug driving, Buffalo Longitudinal Study, USA
The data are from the fourth wave of the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men, population-based sample of adolescent men originally recruited at ages 16-19. The initial study followed them into early adulthood (19-22 years of age) through waves 2 and 3. Wave 4 was instituted approximately 13 years later to examine impaired driving as the respondents aged into mid-adulthood (age 32-37 years). Wave-4 data consists of telephone interviews conducted by trained researchers and self-administered questionnaires that covered a broad range of topics. The follow-up rate for wave 4 exceeds 80% of the 602 living respondents. Several items were used to assess alcohol-impaired driving, alcohol and drug impaired driving, and drug impaired driving for the 12-months prior to the interview.
Alcohol and Drug Use among Fatally Injured Pedestrians Involved in Motor Vehicle Accidents
Alcohol and Drug Use, Fatally Injured Pedestrians, Motor Vehicle Accidents, Malaysia
A total of 670 fatally injured road traffic injury cases were identified. Of these, 505 cases were eligible for substance use analysis where pedestrian accounted for 10.9% (55 cases). The study revealed that 20.0% of the fatal pedestrians were positive for alcohol, 5.5% positive for drug and 5.5% were positive for both drug and alcohol. Male were predominant (88.2%) as compare to female. Higher percentage of substance use was noticed among brought-in-dead cases (41.0%) compared to dead-in-department cases (6.25%). By time of day, more death associated with positive alcohol occurred during night time.
Alcohol and drugs among motorcycle riders compared with car and van drivers killed in road crashes in Norway during 2001-2010
Alcohol and drugs,illicit drugs, motorcycle riders, car and van drivers, road accidents, weekend nights, Norway
We received blood samples from 63% of the killed drivers for analysis of alcohol and drugs. The age distributions were different for MM and CV drivers; <25 years: 34% and 27%, 25-34 years: 27% and 22%, 35-54 years: 35% and 26%, above 54 years: 4% and 25%, respectively. Alcohol or drugs were found in samples from 40% and 27% of killed CV and MM drivers; for single vehicle (SV) accidents 64% and 45%. Alcohol was most commonly found among drivers below 25 years, illicit drugs among those 25-34 years and medicinal drugs among those 35-54 years. Amphetamines and benzodiazepines were the most frequently found illicit and medicinal drug groups. The highest prevalence of alcohol or drugs was found in samples from drivers killed in SV accidents during weekend nights.
Alcohol and other drug involvement in fatally injured drivers in the United States
Alcohol, drug use, fatally injured drivers, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), single-vehicle crashes, United States
Since 1982, the United States has been tracking the blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of drivers fatally injured in traffic crashes. Since 1998, some U.S. states have been tracking drugs other than alcohol in fatally injured drivers. Using the U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we (a) examined the trends from 1982 to 2011 for BACs in fatally injured drivers and (b) examined the use of other drugs in fatally injured drivers in recent years. In 2010, 71% of driver fatalities were tested for BAC. For other drugs, only states with a known lab result for at least 80% of fatally injured drivers who died at the scene were included in our analyses (nine states). When BAC data are unavailable, it is statistically imputed using crash characteristics to obtain more complete and accurate alcohol data. In 2011, 33% of fatally injured drivers had impairing BACs (?.05 grams per decilitre [g/dL]); 31% were at or above the illegal BAC limit in the United States (BAC ?.08g/dL); and 23% had very high BACs (?.15g/dL). These percentages are a vast improvement over 1982 when the percentages were, respectively, 52% (?.05g/dL), 49% (?.08g/dL), and 35% (?.15g/dL). Fatally injured drivers in single-vehicle crashes who died at the scene in the nine high-testing states between 2000 and 2010 indicated that 27% tested positive for drugs other than alcohol (recre-ational, medicine, etc.), with 8% having cannabinoids and 7% having stimulants in their systems at the time of the fatal crash. Reasons for the decline in alcohol-impaired driving between 1982 and 1997 are described. Resuming progress in reducing impaired driving may require lowering the illegal BAC limit for driving and increasing the focus on drugs other than alcohol.
Alcohol consumption and traffic and non-traffic accidents in Australia, 1924-2006
Alcohol consumption, traffic and non-traffic accidents, RBT, traffic mortality, Australia
Statistically significant associations between per capita alcohol consumption and both types of accident mortality were found in both males and females. The results suggest that an increase in per capita alcohol consumption of 1 litre was accompanied by an increase in accident mortality 3.4 among males and 0.5 among females per 100 000 inhabitants. A 1-litre increase in per capita alcohol consumption corresponded to an increase in non-traffic mortality about 3.0 among males and 0.9 among females. The association between alcohol consumption and traffic accidents was stronger among younger people than older people. However, the relationship between alcohol consumption and non-traffic accidents was weaker in younger people than older people. The estimated effects of the introduction of RBT show significantly reductions in traffic mortality in Australia, particularly for males and young people.
Alcohol Interlocks as instruments for enhanced road safety and prevention of alcohol problems
Alcohol Interlocks, road safety, prevention, alcohol problems, commercial vehicles, Norwegian National Committee
The Norwegian National Committee, "Alcohol Interlocks for Motor Vehicles" have made a report and a program for the comprehensive use of alcohol interlocks in commercial vehicles with the purpose of winding down the sceptisism and opposition against the use of alcohol interlocks, and prepare a comprehensive guidelines report for the CENELEC committee and EU-commission preparing an EU-directive for alcohol interlocks in commercial vehicles.
Alcohol interlocks, recidivism prevention and self evaluation of alcohol problems
drink driving, Alcohol interlocks, recidivism prevention, self evaluation, alcohol problems, France
What makes the programs work? Under the same title of “interlock program”, we have seen that various factors are equally important: some of the drivers said the device in itself may be the cause of improvement, others evoke the recall of the law, others have been more swayed to the 2 days driver improvement course, and finally some others liked the monitoring by program leaders. We have seen also that these variables are maybe those which are the more associated with the Prochaska’s factors of change. So, then again, we should in the future compare subgroups to see how these factors interact.
Alcohol use, intentions to drink drive, perceptions of enforcement at learner licensing and drink driving as a learner
and restricted licensed driver
Alcohol use, drink drive, enforcement, learner licensing, drink driving , restricted licensed driver, legal BAC limit, New Zealand
Multivariate logistic regression showed that, after adjusting for demographic characteristics, high alcohol use was associated with driving within two hours of drinking as a learner licensed driver (OR=3.2) and as a restricted licensed driver (OR=3.2), and also driving when thought over the legal BAC limit (OR=1.6) and when possibly unsafe to drive (OR=1.7), as a restricted licensed driver. Intention to drink-drive was associated with driving within 2 hours of drinking (OR=1.8) and high perception of enforcement was associated with driving when thought unsafe (OR=1.9), as a restricted licensed driver.
Alcohol-related driving offences, crashes, and traffic policing strategies in Zhejiang Province, China
Alcohol-related driving offences, crashes, traffic policing strategies, Zhejiang Province, China
Zhejiang Province, in China’s south east, has a population of approximately 54, 426,000; 22.36% hold a driving licence. Rapid motorisation is occurring there. In 2011, 1,383,318 new licences were issued, representing a 16.78% increase from the previous year. In 2012, there were a total of 65,000 police officers throughout the Province, 12,307 of whom (18.9%) were traffic police. Responsibility for conducting alcohol testing is the responsibility of all traffic police. The number of alcohol breath tests conducted per year was not available. However, traffic police are actively enforcing alcohol-related laws. In 2011, 89,228 drivers were charged with drink-driving (DUI;20-80mg/100 mL) and 10,014 with the more serious drunk-driving offence (DWI;>80mg/100mL) (Zhejiang Traffic Management Department, 2012). These numbers decreased from the previous year (221,262 and 26,390 respectively). For all crashes recorded in 2011 (n=20,176), 2% involved alcohol-impaired road users. Information on the role of alcohol in crashes from previous years was not available.
An assessment of criteria used in Switzerland to refer drunk driving offenders for medical screening
Traffic medicine; Via Sicura;BAC; Drunk driving offenders; Swiss criteria.
Data were collected using 209 consecutive cases of drivers who were referred according to the above described criteria between 2010 and 2012. We excluded patients under the influence of drugs and patients unfit for other medical reasons. The screening assessment involved written validated questionnaires (AUDIT, EVACAPA), a personal interview by specialized doctors and/or psychologists, additional questionnaires, information from the driver’s general practitioner, and results of blood alcohol markers. The conclusion of the expert evaluation based on DSM IV criteria was classified as one of four categories: fit with conditions, fit without conditions, unfit -alcohol dependence, and unfit- alcohol abuse.
An Examination of the Validity of the Standardized Field Sobriety Test (SFST) in Detecting Drug Impairment
Validity, Standardized Field Sobriety Test (SFST) ,Drug Impairment, CNS depressants, Canada
All four drug categories showed signs of impaired performance on the SFST. On the HGN test, users of CNS depressants were significantly more likely to experience lack of smooth pursuit and distinct nystagmus at maximum deviation compared to those who did not use drugs. On the OLS test, users of all four drug classes were significantly more likely to sway while balancing and use their arms to maintain balance, but were less likely to hop, as compared to drug-free cases. Users of CNS depressants, CNS stimulants and NA were also significantly more likely to put their raised foot down during the test. On the WAT test, users of CNS depressants, CNS stimulants and NA were less likely to keep their balance while listening to the test instructions compared to those who had not used drugs. Users of CNS depressants were less likely to touch heel-to-toe while walking, whereas individuals who had used NA were less likely to take the correct number of steps.
An In-Depth Examination of Driver Fatalities Involving Drugs
Drug driving, road crashes, Driver Fatalities, river behaviour, psychoactive substances, Canada
Studies have established that 34% of fatally injured drivers in Canada test positive for drugs, a number that is comparable to the 38.5% that test positive for alcohol. However, unlike alcohol, where research has established specific concentrations associated with impairment (e.g., 80 mg/dL), no such equivalents have yet been established for the numerous psychoactive substances believed to affect driver behaviour. Hence, inferences about the extent of driver impairment involved and the role of drugs in the crash cannot be made with confidence. The present project was designed to help understand the involvement of drugs in motor vehicle driver fatalities.
An interview study with convicted drink drivers
convicted drink drivers, influence of alcohol, rehabilitation centres, alcolock program, Sweden
This presentation will be based on two qualitative studies involving semi-structured interviews of convicted drink drivers. The studies included 26 drink drivers, mostly male, between the ages of 20 and 60. The participants were contacted through different rehabilitation centres. The interviews dealt with respondents’ attitudes towards alcohol and driving from a general point of view and their views regarding rehabilitation. In one of the studies their experience and opinions about alcolock devices was discussed. The results showed that the great majority of the respondents had previously driven under the influence of alcohol, although only two persons had previously been convicted of drunken driving. To drink and drive was often a question of not really reflecting over whether one was intoxicated or not. An additional explanation of why they still took the car was that they did not believe that alcohol made them poorer drivers. Generally speaking, the risk of an accident and/or being discovered was considered to be very small.
The respondents all agreed that the punishment in itself, i.e. losing the driver’s licence, would not have been sufficient, and that they also needed support and help. With regard to alcolocks most of them had a relatively positive attitude towards this even though they had certain reservations. Their attitude towards alcolocks depended on how long it should remain fitted and the cost. However, some respondents considered that it was relatively easy to manipulate the device. To only participate in an alcolock program was not considered to be enough to help them to not drink and drive in the future. It could therefore be concluded that drink driving is often related to more deep seated problems and therefore a combination of measures are needed.