Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 18th_T2007_Seattle
20 Years of Interlock in Washington State/Time for Change?
Reducing both recidivism and driving while suspended numbers is a goal for groups dedicated to improving traffic safety. Some are trying to compare the number of Washington’s alcohol related offenses to the number of interlock devices installed. These numbers currently do not come close to each other. A major reason for this disparity is that the requirement for installation does not happen until the person is actually eligible to get their license/driving privilege reissued. Drivers with long suspension periods due to driving while suspended convictions or other offenses may not be eligible for a license for many years. Even then, the driver can choose to wait out the requirement period. Some may never choose to get the interlock device installed.
A Benzodiazepine Screening Method Using a GC-MS Database
Benzodiazepines, GC-MS, Retention indices
The retention time (RT) usually differs depending on the column length even if the same or equivalent types are used. Although the RT is usually determined by analyzing a standard, standards for metabolites are often not readily available for most laboratories. Using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Plus, the RTs were estimated from measured RTs of n-alkanes and LRIs. The LRIs are constant for a particular column stationary phase and method parameters, which compensate for changes in column length and various instruments. To evaluate the accuracy of the RTs a mixture of clobazam, alprazolam,brotizolam, medazepam, lorazepam and midazolam samples diluted by ethyl acetate (5 ng/mL) was injected on the following columns: five [DB-5ms (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d., df = 0.25 um, Agilent Technologies, Inc., CA, U.S.A] and one [Rtx-5SilMS (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d., df = 0.25 um, Restek Corporation, PA, U.S.A]. An-alkane sample (C20 - C33) was used for the RT prediction reference.
A Comparison of Alcolock Applications for Professional and Non-professional
Drivers in a European Field Trial
Ignition interlock, Drink driving, Prevention
The most striking difference between the professional and the non-professional trials was observed with respect to the data logged by the alcolocks. In the individually monitored professional trial in Norway, only 5 failed tests [> .2 g/L Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)] were observed (.05% of all tests). Apart from one case that was considered uncertain, these failed tests were attributed to the presence of extraneous alcohol. In the anonymously monitored trials, almost all of the 95 failed tests (> .3 g/L BAC; .45% of all tests) in Spain were attributed to deliberate testing of the devices, as were most of the 100 failed tests (> .3 g/L BAC) in the German trials. In the non-professional trials, 895 failed tests (> .2 g/L BAC) were observed (1.52% of all pre-tests; .95% of all tests). 279 failed tests exceeded the Belgian legal limit of .5 g/L BAC. Only 4 of these occurred while driving, indicating the alcolocks actively prevented drink driving on at least 275 occasions. The pattern of alcolock results showed that the selected non-professional drivers formed a high-risk group, as shown by the fact that 50% of the participants recorded at least one failed test above 1.0 g/L BAC and by the fact that 39% of the failed tests occurred between 5 a.m. and 11 a.m.
A Comparison of Drugged-Driving Laws and Their Roadside Enforcement Procedures Across the European Union
Legislation, Europe, Drugs
This article describes and compares the various legal restrictions and penalties in the different European countries on driving after taking drugs – whether provisions exist in drug control laws or road traffic laws, the substances addressed, the status and levels of penalties (licence suspension, fines, prison terms), and whether the laws are of zero-tolerance or impairment type, with or without a blooddrug concentration threshold. It also outlines the differing procedures binding the law enforcement officers in the countries during a traffic stop: whether drivers can be stopped at random or if the police require some form of suspicion beforehand; when testing is obligatory, such as after fatal injuries or accidents; whether DRE training is compulsory, optional, or basic; and what tests are performed by the officers before the driver is presented to medical staff.
A Comparison Study of Factors Affecting Driving and Crashes (Alcohol-Related or
Motor vehicle crashes, Impaired driving, Crash determinants
Among the main findings of this study, we found that as expected, starting a trip at a bar is associated with impaired driving (particularly those ending in crashes). Also, although underage and female drivers were less likely to drive or crash while impaired than drivers ages 21+ and men, respectively, they are more likely to be involved in a non-alcohol related crash than their respective counterparts. In our within-crash comparisons, we found that less than ideal weather conditions increases the likelihood of having an alcohol related crash (driver’s BAC > .00), but does not increases the odds for drivers with a BAC >= .05 over the .00 < BAC < .05 drivers. Being insured reduces the likelihood of having an alcohol related crash (driver’s BAC > .00) compared against BAC = .00 drivers, as
well as for BAC >= .05 drivers compared with .00 < BAC < .05 drivers.
A Comprehensive Analytical Protocol for Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety
Alcohol, Drugs, Traffic safety
Oral fluid, blood, urine, head or pubic hair, and vitreous humor are collected roadside by police, at hospitals or at FTA Unit. Screening and confirmation procedures have been implemented for drugs and psychoactive substances, alcohol, markers of alcohol use. Prior to screening/confirmation, biofluids may be pre-treated by means of liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) or solid-phase extraction (SPE). Urine adulteration is checked by measuring pH, adulterants, specific gravity and creatinine concentrations.
A Data Driven Approach to Addressing Impaired Driving Enforcement
DUI, Enforcement, Mapping
Strategic forecasting of enforcement activity and DUI collisions each month by district allows us to examine long-range problems and projects increases and decreases in trends. This process allows for improved goal setting, allows more influence over outcomes, and wiser utilization of staffing resources. GIS mapping allows the department to ‘do more with less’ by focusing on the locations that need attention and to focus less on the locations where the data shows no problems exist.
A Demographic Study of Blood and Breath Alcohol Findings from Drivers Allegedly
Driving Under the Influence in San Francisco, California from 2002 to 2006
Breath alcohol, DUI, Blood alcohol concentration
San Francisco is a dynamic city with a diverse populace of 739,000. Notably, the daytime population swells to nearly 1 million due to the employment the city offers. Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006, 9,174 DUI investigations were undertaken in the City and County of San Francisco for which blood alcohol values were obtained. Historically in this jurisdiction, direct blood alcohol analysis is performed in duplicate by headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (HS/GC/FID) by the Toxicologists of the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, while breath-derived blood alcohol values are measured in duplicate by trained law enforcement personnel with Intoxilyzer® 5000s (CMI) which are calibrated and serviced by the San Francisco Police Department’s Criminalists. All testing takes place in accordance with California’s Code of Regulations (Title 17, Div. 1, Ch. 2, Subch. 1, Gr. 8: Forensic Alcohol Analysis and Breath Alcohol Analysis, Art. 1-8, Sec. 1215-1222). This work is aimed at comparing blood and breath-derived blood alcohol concentrations, finding similarities or differences and determining the root cause of any.
A Fast and Sensitive Screening Method for Buprenorphine and Norbuprenorphine in Urine and Whole Blood by Solid Phase Extraction and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/TOFMS)
H. B. Klinke, K. Linnet, I. B. Müller, and P. W. Dalsgaard
The retention time was 0.85 min for norbuprenorphine and 1.23 min for buprenorphine, and the total UPLC run time was 3 minutes. The mass accuracy was found to be better than 5 ppm and resolution higher than 10,000. The linear range of the instrument method was 0.00005 to 0.1 mg/L for buprenorphine and 0.0005 to 0.1 mg/l for norbuprenorphine. Accuracy was verified by including spiked samples in each run. The limit of detection (LOD) in blank matrix was found to be 0.0001 mg/L in blood and 0.0005 mg/L in urine for buprenorphine, and 0.001 mg/L blood and 0.005 mg/L urine for norbuprenorphine. Thus, the LOD of buprenorphine in blood was found to be adequate for detection of buprenorphine in the therapeutic range; 0.0001 to 0.001 mg/L.
A Fatality Occurring During Tumescent Liposuction
Anesthesia toxicity, Lidocaine, Mepivacaine
Based on the autopsy findings, case history, and toxicology results, the forensic pathologists ruled that the cause of death was due to an overdose of local anesthetic agents. The low complication rates achieved in lipoplasty are due to adequately trained surgeons and anesthesia providers, and the diligent intraoperative and postoperative monitoring, which were mostly neglected by the operating surgeon involved in our case. Therefore the manner of death was considered accidental although due to gross medical negligence.
A Herbal Medicine Adulteration with Sibutramine
Herbal medicine, Adulteration, Sibutramine
One major component was detected and identified as SIBU, an amphetamine related compound. Other organic compounds including demethylated products of SIBU and pesticide residues were not detected. Quantification by LC-MS-APCI method yielded 27.5 mg SIBU base, which was approximately two times higher than in MERI, which contained declared 15 mg SIBU hydrochloride. The average heavy metal content (expressed in ?g per capsule) in MERI and MEIZI capsules were as follows: Cd 0.30 and Zn 0.19 in each; Cr 1.70 and 1.66, Hg 0.006 and 0.02, Mn 0.45 and 0.40, Pb 2.1 and 2.0, Cu 0.68 and 0.67, respectively; and all had no toxicological significance. Additionally, MERI and MEIZI were similar in capsule mass (0.58 g and 0.63 g), but different in colour (blue and grey-orange) and fillery (lactose and starch).
A Meta-Analysis of Alcohol Studies: An Attempt to Multi-Dimensional Risk Functions
Meta-analysis, Risk function, Classification system
A key problem is to classify the different performance and effect measures used by the experimenters into a conceptual framework, which then allows to link these effects to traffic scenarios. Therefore, the driving task also has to be classified into the same conceptual framework. A new multi-dimensional classification system is established to describe the relevant features of an experimental task (kind of attention, motor complexity, level of processing, etc.), which then can be linked to different aspects of the driving task. A first application will be demonstrated.
A Method for the Quantification of Heroin and its Metabolites in Plasma by Liquid
Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Heroin metabolites, LC-MS/MS, Plasma
A sensitive and specific method for the quantitation of heroin metabolites, namely heroin, 6-MAM, morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide and normorphine in human plasma was developed and validated. This method was developed for testing plasma samples obtained from children who are under treatment for acute severe pain and data of samples tested will be presented in the future.
A New Concept for Oral Fluid Sampling, Storage and Recovery
Sample collection, Oral fluid, ?9-THC recovery
The GCMS-results revealed as provisional result nearly 90% recovery of the original spiked analyte amount after 10 days storage (result up to 16 days in progress). Reliable drug recovery rates and defined losses due to e.g. adsorption to the storage and transportation tube or collection device housing/handle will be achieved. The device can be used to collect oral fluid samples quickly, efficiently and without pain. Due to the minimally invasive sampling process and easy handling during operation and for recovery (e.g. ejector disposition), the risk of infection for medical or lab personnel is substantially reduced. The concept is also suitable for single or “twin” sample collection, offering a practical undiluted, non-chemicallytreated sampling split approach.
A Novel Approach to Detecting Mouth Alcohol
Breath testing, Mouth alcohol, Alcohol
Traditionally utilized Mouth Alcohol detection algorithms identify mouth alcohol by determining if a higher alcohol concentration existed at the beginning of the expired breath sample than at end of the expiration. A breath sample where no Mouth Alcohol exists will produce an ever increasing ethanol concentration, albeit the increase is at a decreasing rate over time.
A Novel, Turnkey MS Replacement Strategy for Traditional LC/UV Drug Screening
This paper presents the results of a development project to create a drop-in replacement LC-MS/MS solution for drug screening LC-MS/MS users. The system performance characteristics and examples are provided, along with a back-to-back comparison with traditional LC/UV techniques. Cliquid™ Software provided an ideal platform for development of an easy-to-use turnkey solution. Combined with the appropriate LC-MS hardware, the novel browser-like interface allows users of the existing LC/UV techniques to transition to more advanced LC-MS/MS technology with very little training, and very little change to the existing sample/data handling procedures. The methods included with the system utilize the unique scan capabilities of the 3200 Q Trap® hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap LC-MS/MS systems to provide rapid, simultaneous screening and identification. Combined with an included 1,200 compounds LC-MS/MS library and a variety of automated reporting options, this novel solution provides a drop-in replacement for existing LC/UV techniques for drug screening applications.
A Review of Deaths Involving Methamphetamine in Utah
Methamphetamine, Demographic, Incidence
Eighty-five percent of deaths involving MA occurred along the Wasatch Front, the metropolitan region of Utah in which 70% of the population resides. In contrast, an analysis of numbers of deaths with respect to county population shows elevated rates in some rural counties as well. Although the average age of decedents in most deaths involving MA has remained between 21 and 54, the range of age of decedents has widened over time. The first fetal demise due to maternal MA abuse was reported in 1998 and there were 3 cases involving 63-year old decedents in 2004 and 2005. Male decedents continue to dominate, however, the proportion of female decedents increased from 9% in 1995 to 22% in 2005.
A Semi-Quantitative General Unknown Screening Method for Drugs and Toxic
Compounds in Urine Using Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
General unknown screening, Toxicology, LC-MS
An MS/MS spectral library of 300 compounds most commonly observed in toxicology laboratories was created. Quantitation curves were developed for 50 analytes in SPE-prepped human urine utilizing dual mode Hypersep -Verify CX cartridges developed for basic, neutral and acidic compounds. A 13 minute LC method was implemented and samples were analyzed using electrospray ionization on a TSQ Quantum Access triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with a 50 x 2.1 5 ?m Hypersil Gold PFP column using ACN and 10 mM ammonium formate in 0.1% formic acid in a gradient mode with a flow rate of 200 uL/min. A scan dependent SRM scan was used for quantitation, followed by scan dependent MS/MS scans for screening against the spectral library.
A Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Hydrochlorothiazide and
Chlorthalidone in Human Serum
Hydrochlorothiazide, Chlorthalidone, LC-MS/MS
Sulfadimethoxine was used as the IS because 1) it is not used for human treatment and 2) it is suitable as an IS for other diuretics (furosemide, spironolactone). The analytes were quantitated in the full scan MS2 mode (precursor ion and neutral loss scanning). The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.5 – 200 ng/mL for HCTZ and 1.25 – 500 ng/mL for CT in human serum, respectively. The lowest calibrators were at the LOQ for the analytes. Quality control (QC) samples included low, med, high and dilution controls (x2) at 2, 80, and 200 ng/mL for HCTZ and 5, 200, and 500 ng/mL for CT. Six replicates of each were assayed for intra-assay precision (coefficient of variation (CV) ? 10%), and in triplicate on three different days for inter-day precision (CV ? 12%). The overall accuracy (relative error) was less than 10%. The selectivity of the method was studied by analysis of negative serum. No interfering peaks appeared in these chromatograms. Typical concentrations found in patient samples for HCTZ ranged from 6 – 498 ng/mL (mean 236 ng/mL) for HCTZ and 50 ng/mL for CT. In one case, HCTZ and furosemide were prescribed and also identified using full MS method.
A Series of 1,1-Difluoroethane Related Deaths
Difluoroethane, Postmortem toxicology, Inhalants
Postmortem blood was analyzed for volatiles by headspace gas chromatography and headspace GCMS. Drug screening by EMIT was performed for cocaine, opiates, methadone, benzodiazepines, PCP, amphetamines, barbiturates, tricyclic antidepressants, cannabinoids and propoxyphene, and by both basic and acid neutral extractions with GCMS analysis. DFE is detected in the volatile screen with a relative retention time of 0.7 when compared to ethanol. DFE was confirmed by headspace GCMS.