Conference Proceedings and Papers

Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.

 

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Search results for: 17th_T2004_Glasgow
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17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
A Comparative Analysis of Impaired Driving Laws in the US and Canada: the Impact of Politics, Data and Advocacy
Author/s
LC Degutis, N Giesbrecht, H Sayward, G Stoduto
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Traffic safety, road accidents, drink driving, Impaired Driving Laws, DWI laws, Politics, Data,Advocacy, US, Canada
Description / summary
There are major differences between U.S. and Canadian DWI laws resulting from federal vs. local (state or province) control over the laws. Key informant interviews indicate that the use of data and research is important to the policy development and legislative process, as is the use of anecdotes although there is a sense that these are becoming somewhat less effective. Most respondents agreed that a combination of victims’ stories and data are necessary in advocating for DWI policy change. Political and societal factors such as concerns about individual and state/provincial rights, as well as the viewpoint of the political party in power are also influential. Advocacy groups and coalitions have been very important in influencing DWI policy in both the U.S. and Canada, with MADD taking a major role in this area. In the U.S., federal mandates, while not popular with the states, have been effective in encouraging passage of specific DWI laws.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
A Comparative Study of the Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) 75mg and Methylphenidate 20mg on Actual Driving Performance During Intoxication and Withdrawal
Author/s
JG Ramaekers, K Kuypers
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Traffic safety, road crashes, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), Methylphenidate, Driving Performance intoxication, Withdrawal, the Netherlands
Description / summary
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is currently one of the most popular drugs of abuse in Europe. Its increasing use over the last decade has led to concern regarding possible adverse effects on driving. It has been estimated that up to 35% of subjects using MDMA at raves or dance parties will drive home afterwards . Several fatal and non-fatal road-accidents have been reported in which MDMA was found in plasma of drivers, or those held responsible for the accident . Specific behavioural changes that have been reported in drivers under the influence of MDMA included speeding, jumping red lights, hallucinations/delusions and a sense of detachment from the real world. These case reports clearly stress the need to further investigate the putative effects of MDMA on driving performance or driving-related psychomotor performance under experimentally controlled conditions.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Drink Driving and Other Risk Taking Behaviors: Challenges for the Change Process
Author/s
M Sheehan, V Siskind, C Schonfeld
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Traffic safety, Longitudinal Study, Adolescent Drink Driving, , Risk Taking Behaviors: Challenges,Change Process, Australia
Description / summary
Risk taking is a major contributing cause of injury, particularly with respect to the trauma experienced by young male adults. A report by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare in 1999, called Australia’s Young People – their Health and Wellbeing 1999 [1], found that more than two thirds of deaths in young people were attributable to some form of injury, including road crashes and suicide. The focus and methods best able to effect change and reduction in at-risk attitudes and behaviours leading to injury remain understudied, although it is clear that the development of interventions to reduce risk related behaviours is exceedingly complex.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
A New System of Mobile Evidential Breath-alcohol Testing has Improved the Fight Against Drunk Driving in Sweden
Author/s
C Bergman, K Berglund, L Andersson, AW Jones
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Traffic safety, road traffic accidents, drink driving, Mobile Evidential Breath-alcohol Testing , EBT, Sweden
Description / summary
Sweden’s new portable instrument for evidential breath-alcohol testing (Evidenzer) incorporates several novel features and has rationalised police procedures in the battle against drunk driving. The most important new feature is the fact that testing can be done at the roadside in close proximity with the driving. Hopefully, the Evidenzer will work properly also on police patrol boats and snowmobiles. Transport of a suspect from the place of arrest to the nearest police station often required considerable police time and manpower, especially in sparsely populated parts of the country. This time-delay meant that many suspects above the legal limit according to the roadside test were below the legal limit for driving by the time the EBT was made. The vast majority of apprehended
drivers are in the elimination stage of alcohol metabolism and blood-alcohol drops by 0.19 per mille per hour (3). Conducting the EBT closer to the time of driving will increase the prosecution rate of drunk drivers.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
A Preliminary Investigation into the Nexus between Substance Abuse and Non-Fatal Road Traffic Injury Outcome in South Africa
Author/s
A Sukhai
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Traffic saftey, road traffic collisions, injuires, Substance Abuse, Non-Fatal Road Traffic Injury, South Africa
Description / summary
Injuries as a result of road traffic collisions in South Africa are among the highest in the world and constitute a major public health challenge. The National Department of Transport (NDoT) indicated that in 2001, the South African traffic burden translated to 512 000 crashes, which resulted in 7 900 road traffic deaths and 150 000 injuries. Road traffic collisions also has a huge disability burden and ranks the 4th highest cause of premature mortality in the country [2]. The overall cost of this carnage to the South African economy was estimated at a staggering R13.8 billion. Substance abuse is often implicated as a major contributor to these road traffic injuries.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
A Qualitative Analysis of Drugs as a Contributing Factor to Accidents in Denmark
Author/s
IM Bernhoft, A Steentoft, S Johansen, NA Klitgaard
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Road safety, drugs use, road accidents, Qualitative Analysis, Denmark
Description / summary
The interviews have produced new information about accident-involved drivers who took drugs before the accident. Although the results are of a qualitative character and can under no circumstances give rise to any statistical suggestions, they show how much more that has to be done regarding the information about drugs and driving. These preliminary results also show that more emphasis should be given to inform young people of the consequences that may follow addiction to cannabis. This information should take place in schools, during driving lessons and with the GP regarding prescribed medicines. The physician should also assess whether the illness is caused by drug use. As for the other main group of early-retired people, they are characterized by still driving a car or a moped irrespective of use of various medicines, often combined with high concentrations of alcohol.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
A Social Norms Approach to Reduce Drinking-Driving Among University Students
Author/s
AH Goodwin
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Social Norms Approach, , Drinking-Driving, University Students, feedback signs, USA
Description / summary
A social norms approach represents a positive alternative to prevention programs that rely on “scare tactics” and which portray alcohol use by university students as pervasive. This approach could be adopted to reduce drinking-driving in a variety of settings, such as military bases and high schools. Creative application of social norms theory also shows promise. For example, “feedback signs” have been successfully employed to increase seat-belt use in some communities. Posted along major roads and updated regularly, these signs present accurate information about seat belt use to drivers in the community.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
Addressing Driver Impairment Through Challenging Attitudes and Improving Education - A UK Success Story
Author/s
GR Wynn, JF Feehan
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Drink driving, Driver Impairment, Challenging Attitudes, Education, drink-drive rehabilitation scheme, UK
Description / summary
The success of the drink-drive rehabilitation scheme is likely to mean an increasing number of other education initiatives, some of which may well like the drink drive rehabilitation scheme involve courts. Part of our success in developing this initiative has been attributed to good communication with courts this has included awareness of the magistrates training system and in particular getting training on our scheme approved as part of magistrates training i.e. they can count hours spent learning about the scheme towards their annual training commitment. Also providing liaison staff for all courts, providing good quality feedback information on the success of the scheme through annual reports newsletters etc and attendance at court open days. As a result of these strategies courts in all of the areas with serve refer an average of 85 to 90% of their drink drivers with many exceeding 90%. To make road safety initiatives work we need to engage with Magistrates
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
Alcohol Abuse / Dependence Symptoms, BAC, and Two Years of Daily Reporting of Driving Intoxication Level and Quantity and Location of Drinking
Author/s
MWB Perrine, RL Forester, FB Huessy
Year Published
2004
Keywords
traffic safety,drink driving, road traffic crashes,Alcohol Abuse / Dependence Symptoms, BAC, Driving Intoxication Level, Quantity,Location of Drinking, USA
Description / summary
The 64 male participants were all drivers who had a history of drinking, such that each had 1 or more symptoms of lifetime alcohol dependence (maximum = 7). Most participants drank heavily (mean = 6.3 / day) and frequently (mean = 70% of all reporting days over a 2-year period). They drove after drinking on 77% of the drinking days. They rated themselves as intoxicated on 21% of the drink-driving days. Their mean BAC was 0.08% (range: 0.03% for light drinkers - 0.13% for ultra heavy drinkers). Thus, this sample could reasonably be characterized as very heavy drinkers who frequently drive after drinking when 1 out of 5 rates himself as intoxicated and at least half are over the federally recommended BAC of 0.08% -- and therefore subject to DUI arrest. Nevertheless, this group of participants had a relatively low number of alcohol / driving arrests.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
Alcohol Abuse in a University Community: Do Designated Drivers Influence the Intoxication of Vehicle Passengers?
Author/s
KE Glindemann, SW Clarke, MJ Hargrove
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Alcohol Abuse, University Community, Designated Drivers Influence, Intoxication, Vehicle Passengers, BAC levels, USA
Description / summary
The hypothesis that female DDs would have lower mean BAC levels than male DDs was not supported. Contrary to prior research,16 male DDs and female DDs did not show significant differences in BAC levels. This finding is encouraging, and may suggest men in this community setting are starting to take the DD role more seriously. However, the mean BAC of male DDs in this sample reached .041, which is alarmingly high for someone who has agreed to be a DD and safeguard others.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
Alcohol and Driving – The Road Ahead
Author/s
AW Jones
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Drink driving, blood-alcohol concentration, repeat offenders, DUI conviction, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), Sweden
Description / summary
Repeat offender with high blood-alcohol concentration when apprehended (>150 mg/100 mL) are in need of education and rehabilitation during the period of detention. Biological markers can be used to detect problem drinkers and allow medical intervention. This is especially important before a person gets re-licensed after a DUI conviction. Repeat offenders need to prove to the authorities that they are no longer dependent on alcohol. Among the most widely used biochemical markers for excessive alcohol consumption (> 60-80 g per day) are the serum enzymes (GGT, AST, ALT), mean corpuscular volume of red cells (MCV) and especially carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT).
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
Alcohol Education in Driver Training Program
Author/s
R Quddus, R Syed
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Traffic safety, road accidents, drink driving, Alcohol Education,fatality rate, Driver Training Program, Bangladesh
Description / summary
Road accidents in Bangladesh claim on average 4000 lives and injures another 5000 every year. The low injury rate is due to non-recording of minor injuries by the effected people. The national loss due to road accident is estimated to be about taka 40 billion (about US$ 750 million) The statistics reveals that Bangladesh has one of the highest fatality rate in road accident about 73 deaths per 10,000 registered motor vehicles every year, whereas the rate is below 5 for developed countries.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
Alcohol Ingestion From Food
Author/s
EB Reynolds
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Alcohol Ingestion, Food, Apocryphal stories, alcohol consumption, UK
Description / summary
Apocryphal stories about food as a source of alcohol encountered by motorists abound, most are based on the wishful thinking of women and men anxious to preserve their mobility by retaining the right to drive. Few of these tales are the product of experience, knowledge and understanding of food preparation and processing likely to lead to the retention of significant amounts of the alcohol used as an ingredient of food. Cases involving unwitting consumption of alcohol remaining in food are described.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
Alcohol Related Road Accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany – Status till 2002
Author/s
G Kroj, M Lerner
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Traffic safety,drink driving, traffic crashes, Alcohol Related Road Accidents, BAC, Germany
Description / summary
The establishment of breath tests gives the possibility of a less costly and more efficiently policing of drink driving. In further years it has to be examined in which way a more efficient policing together with a more severe sanctioning of drink driving (fine and suspension of licence for at least one month upwards 0.05 % BAC) could contribute to reduce alcohol related accidents and so to improve traffic safety.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
Alcohol Testing and Reporting for Drivers in Fatal Crashes
Author/s
JH Hedlund, RG Ulmer, VS Northrup, V Gompf, D Doucet
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Road safety,drink driving, fatal traffic crashes ,alcohol testing, Reporting, USA
Description / summary
This report presents the results of a study of alcohol testing and reporting methods and rates for drivers involved in fatal traffic crashes in the United States. It identifies best practices for and major barriers to increasing testing, as determined from detailed studies of ten states, and provides suggestions for implementing these best practices.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
Alcohol, Drug Use and Psychiatric Problems Among Frequent Road Ragers
Author/s
RG Smart, J Butters, RE Mann, M Asbridge, E Adlaf
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Road safety,drink driving, Drug Use, traffic crashes,Psychiatric Problems , Road Ragers, Canada
Description / summary
Although verbal offenders and verbal victim-offenders were significantly more likely to report cannabis use than those with little to no road rage involvement, illicit drug use is significantly greater for those individuals involved in the most serious form of road rage activities (frequent road ragers). These results clearly indicate that a greater proportion of those with more seriously involvement in road rage incidents report past year use of cannabis and cocaine. While more consistency was observed across the groups with respect to alcohol, one third of the frequent road rage respondents may be classified as problem drinkers. This is twice the proportion seen among respondents with little or no road rage involvement.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
Alcohol, Drugs and Driving in Iceland during Years 2000 to 2002
Author/s
G Thorsdottir, K Magnusdottir, J Kristinsson
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Alcohol, illicit drugs,driving under the influence of alcohol, road crashes, Iceland
Description / summary
The study indicates that driving under the influence of alcohol, licit or illicit drugs is of major concern in Iceland. The high prevalence of illicit drugs and the fact that most prescription drugs had been taken in more than therapeutic doses strongly indicates that driving under the influence is related to drug abuse rather than the proper use of drugs for medical purposes. At the same time as driving under the influence of alcohol seems to be unchanged or even declining, driving under the influence of drugs seems to be increasing.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
Alcolock Implementation in the European Union: An In-depth Qualitative Field Trial
Author/s
M Drevet, FJ Alvarez, TY Assum, C Evers, R Mathijssen, P Silverans, W Vanlaar
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Road safety, road traffic crashes, drink driving, Alcolock Implementation,European Union,Qualitative Field Trial, Belgium
Description / summary
In order to study the psychological, sociological, behavioural and practical impact of alcolocks on five different groups of thirty drivers (Spanish and Norwegian public transport drivers, German goods transport drivers, Belgian recidivists and Belgian alcohol dependent patients) alcolocks will be installed in these drivers' vehicles for a period of one year. Before, during and after this period participants' attitudes towards driving, drinking and drink driving will be investigated by means of questionnaire-based interviews and compared to the data recorded by the alcolock. At the same time a sample of related subjects of these groups (respectively passengers, company owners and persons living together with the driver for the last two groups) will also be interviewed. All together these data will provide an in-depth exploration of people's real life experiences with alcolocks in a European context. The recommendations resulting from this research, and the hypotheses it generates, will serve as a necessary step towards further quantitative trials and the legal implementation of alcolocks in Europe.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
An Analysis of Implied Consent Refusals to Submit to a BAC Test in the United States
Author/s
TJ Zwicker, J Hedlund, A Berning, VS Northrop
Year Published
2004
Keywords
Drink driving,Implied Consent Refusals, BAC Test, DUI, United States
Description / summary
Breath test refusal rates nationwide remained stable at about one-quarter of all drivers arrested for DUI from 1996 to 2001. Significant changes in refusal rates are split evenly between those states with increases and those with decreases. States with already low rates experienced decreases and those with already high rates experienced increases.
Category
17th_T2004_Glasgow
Paper Title
An Effective Incentive/Reward Intervention to Reduce Intoxication at University Fraternity Parties
Author/s
KE Glindemann, ES Geller, IJ Ehrhart
Year Published
2004
Keywords
student intoxication, Incentive/Reward Intervention, Reduce Intoxication, University Fraternity Parties, USA
Description / summary
Our incentive/reward intervention was a simple, socially-valid approach to reducing college alcohol abuse that is potentially effective for large-scale application. This field study lends greater support for the efficacy of differential reinforcement in controlling student intoxication at party settings, and the potential for the incentive/reward intervention to be self-supporting makes it feasible for large-scale adoption. The intervention approach could also be incorporated in other areas of the college community, such as local bars and taverns. Future research will demonstrate whether the findings of this field experiment warrant communitywide application.