Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 16th_T2002_Montreal
A Comparison of Driving While Intoxicated Laws in the United States and Canada
Alcohol, Impaired Driving, Policy
This paper examines the similarities and differences in driving while impaired (DWI) laws in the United States (US) and Canada. Essentially all DWI law in the US is governed by state statutes, while many Canadian policies are a part of the Canadian Criminal Code, set by the national Parliament. The federal government in the US has attempted to use financial incentives in order to encourage states to pass more stringent DWI laws, and in particular, a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for DWI of 80 mg%; open container laws, and more severe sanctions for repeat DWI offenders. Legislative records and history have been reviewed in order to determine dates of passage of laws as well as introductions of policy that failed to become law. Records include text of legislation as well as oral and written testimony. A comparison of the dates of enactment of laws in US states and Canadian provinces was made for BAC limits, administrative per se laws, special BAC limits for young drivers, and sanctions for DWI convictions. Federal legislation that provides incentives for passage of state laws in the US has not resulted in across the board passage of .08 or open container laws. Canadian provinces have uniformly lower BAC limits, and stricter penalties for DWI violations.
A Comparison of Equal Alcohol Doses of Beer and 101 Proof Whiskey on Eleven Human Test Subjects
Alcohol, beer, breath, Intoxilyzer, whiskey
Eleven non-alcoholic subjects gave written informed consent. Seven men (age 23-52) and four women (age 26-44) were hydrostatically weighed to determine their % body fat and lean body weight. Female subjects on average had a higher % body fat 23.5% (range 18.6-30.0%) than males 16.9% (range 7.5-30.2%). Each subject fasted for at least 10 hrs. then received an oral dose of alcohol at 1.23 g/kg of lean body weight to achieve the intended alcohol concentration of approximately 0.11. On day one beer, containing approximately 5% ethanol by volume, was consumed and on day two 101 proof whiskey mixed with a carbonated beverage was consumed. The drinks were consumed over 2 hr. and 45 min. in three 45-min. drinking periods. Each drinking period was followed by a 15-min. deprivation period and breath alcohol measurements were conducted. After drinking ended, testing continued in 20-min. intervals until each subject's alcohol concentration returned to 0.000. All alcohol analyses were conducted on the Intoxilyzer
5000® and reported as g/210 L. While there were significant individual subject differences in both women and men in peak alcohol concentrations between beer and whiskey, the differences between the average peak alcohol concentrations between women and men, and beer and whiskey were insignificant.
A Comparison of the Incidence of Drugs in Drink Drivers and Fatal Road Casualties
Drink, Drugs, Drivers, Road, Casualties, Fatal
Results from a study of the incidence of alcohol and drugs in road accident fatalities carried out between 1996 and 2000 show a large increase in the incidence of illicit drugs (from 3% to 18%) since the last comparable study in Great Britain in the mid-1980s. For practical and ethical reasons, there are extreme difficulties in obtaining an un-biased control sample of the incidence of drugs in a population of non-accident involved road users. Whilst a fatal road accident population represents a well defined population for study it was considered desirable to study the incidence of drugs in alternative populations of road users, particularly those who were primarily non-accident involved. One such population is the sample of drivers and riders who are required to give an evidential sample, under the 1988 Road Traffic Act, after suspicion of drink-driving above the legal limit. A subset of 2000 such cases where blood was given was selected anonymously from England and Wales and subsequently analysed for comparison with the fatally injured sample.
The results show that the incidence of drugs in a broadly representative sample of drink-drivers (26.7%) was similar to that in a population of fatally injured road users carried out over the same period (24.1%). When the fatally injured population who had also consumed alcohol was taken into account, there was shown to be no significant difference in drug usage between the two populations. The distribution of those who had consumed drugs and those who had not was not significantly different in the two populations.
A Geographic Analysis of DWI Offenders
Alcohol, DWI, cluster analysis, geography
There are almost no studies of the geographic distribution of DWI offenders. Basic information such as whether DWI offenders are randomly distributed in the population or tend to come from specific neighborhoods could have important implications for DWI prevention and interventions. If geographic clusters are identified, anti-DWI efforts can be targeted at specific areas, whereas this type of geographic targeting would not be appropriate if the DWI population is randomly distributed. The objective of this study is to determine whether the home locations of DWI offenders are spatially clustered by using appropriate spatial analytic methodology. All DWI offenders (i.e., any drinking-driving conviction) from 1990-1994 in Erie County, New York form the database for this study. Over 15,500 DWI offender home addresses were geocoded and allocated to census tracts and block groups. A spatial scan methodology based on a case-control approach was used to determine whether census tracts or block groups formed significant geographic clusters. Results based on the analysis of DWI offenders at the census tract level and block group level identified a number of statistically significant spatial clusters. The geographic analysis found that specific high and low rate areas could be identified based on official DWI conviction information. The clusters based on block groups provided a refinement of the clusters found at the tract level. The geographic distribution of DWI offenders is clustered and not random, which could be used to target intervention programs.
A Longitudinal Survival Analysis of Drivers with Multiple Alcohol- Related Traffic Offenses: Fifth Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Ignition Interlock License Restriction Trial in Maryland
Longitudinal Survival Analysis, drink driving, Traffic Offenses, Ignition Interlock, License Restriction Trial, Maryland, USA
Alcohol-impaired driving continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. During 2000, alcohol was involved in 40% of all traffic fatalities (1). One promising countermeasure to alcohol-impaired driving is the ignition interlock license restriction program. Ignition interlock devices are designed to prevent an alcohol-impaired driver from starting and operating a motor vehicle. License restriction means that drivers are approved for license reinstatement on the condition that they agree to a license restriction prohibiting them from operating a vehicle without an ignition interlock device. The conditional interlock license restriction is prominently displayed on the driver’s license of each program participant. Ignition interlock license restrictions have shown potential for reducing recidivism among drivers with multiple alcohol-related traffic offenses (2). Later analyses of this same cohort examined recidivism rates 3 and 4 years after study entry (3, 4). In the current paper, new recidivism rates for the one year interlock license restriction program and second (i.e., first year post-interlock) through fifth year (i.e., fourth year post-interlock) of follow-up are presented using newly developed electronic data abstraction methods. There was no statistically significant difference in the recidivism rates for the interlock license restriction (4.0%) and control groups (4.8%) in the fifth year after study entry.
A New Experimental Paradigm to Prove
Sedative Effects of Psychoactive Substances
Sedative Effects, Psychoactive Substance, fatigue, BAC
Effects on low doses of psychoactive substances are quite weak and difficult to measure. Furthermore, if sedative effects or vigilance reduction are to be investigated a methodological and practical issue is to induce the effect rather than wait for it. Therefore, a new rationale is introduced that adds high effort episodes into normal tasks. We term this approach “MaxMin” method. In this approach we give subjects the chance to remain vigilant by operating more actively. This self-activation is possible in early stages of fatigue only, whereas at the last stage subjects tend to reduce the stress. In our experimental design subjects had to drive a monotonous route in a simulator and were instructed to stress themselves at predefined episodes by driving as fast as possible. After each trip (about 25 min monotonous route and 5 min driving with high demands; 11 trips overall) subjective ratings and BAC were measured. Subjects of one group consumed alcohol aimed to reach a peak BAC of 0.5 ‰ and were compared to the non-alcohol group. The alcohol group drove faster within the periods of high demand. Their lane deviation was increased during the fast trips as well as during the normal epochs. Physiological data on EEG and eyelid closure will be presented to confirm the hypothesis of the self- activational process.
A Preliminary Evaluation of the Swedish Ignition Interlock Programme and Recommended Further Steps
Road safety, drink driving, road crashes, BAC, DWI offenders, Ignition Interlock Programme, Sweden
The Swedish alcohol ignition interlock programme for DWI offenders started as a pilot project in 1999. It is a volunteer programme, but differs in some respects from other programmes. It covers a period of two years, and includes very strict medical regulations entailing regular check-ups by a physician. Records from the five years prior to the DWI offence showed that the DWI offenders are generally in a high-risk category long before their offence. During the programme, alcohol consumption is monitored through the use of selfesteem questionnaires (AUDIT) and five different biological markers. Our preliminary data shows a noticeable reduction in alcohol consumption amongst the participants, as determined through falling AUDIT scores and significantly decreased levels in the biological markers. It must, however, be noted that the number of participants is still very small (285 individuals) compared to other programmes. Up until now, no case of recidivism has been found during the programme, but it is still too early to draw any
conclusions concerning the rate of recidivism after completion of the programme, as data is not yet available for analysis. Nevertheless, the preliminary results are so promising that the programme will be expanded to cover all of Sweden, as well as include all driving licence categories.
A Review of Experimental Studies of Low BAC Effects on Skills Performance
Alcohol, literature review, low BAC’s, experimental studies, skills performance
This article reviews a recent period of 15 years of experimental studies of driving related performance skills under low BAC levels. It concludes that different behavioral areas exhibit sharp differences in both the threshold BAC level at which impairment appears and the magnitude of impairment. Several major areas that are important for traffic safety demonstrate significant impairment at the lowest BAC levels examined.
A Study of DUI Enforcement
Enforcement, alcohol-impaired driving, DUI
The number of driving-under-the-influence of alcohol (DUI) arrests varies widely among traffic officers within the same agency. A study was undertaken in the State of Colorado to evaluate what factors might underlie such differences. Data were obtained by anonymous questionnaire from a sample of Colorado traffic officers who differed in their arrest rates. Differences in DUI arrest rates were not related to the officers’ personal experiences with alcohol, their knowledge about its effects, or their DUI enforcement training. The officers who made the most arrests generally were younger with fewer years in law enforcement and were more likely to say they actively seek DUI offenders, whereas those with low arrest numbers were more likely to say they arrest only those that they happen to see. Officers who made more arrests tended to have more positive attitudes about making DUI arrests and engage in a more active enforcement style. However these differences were small.
Age of Drinking Onset Predicts Young Adults’ Self-Reported Drink-Driving
Alcohol, Drinking Onset, Drink-Driving, Adolescents, Young Adults
This study examined the age of onset of regular drinking as a predictor of self-reported drinkdriving behavior in young adulthood, using longitudinal adolescent and young adult survey data. There was a strong relationship between drinking onset age and young adult drink-driving level: those with drinking onset under age 14 were more likely to report more severe levels of young adult drink-driving. These findings offer sound, longitudinal evidence of the relationship between early drinking onset and young adult drink-driving level and underscore the need for early prevention efforts.
Alcohol and Drug Consumption by Québec Truck Drivers
Alcohol, drugs, truck driver, survey
The Société de l’assurance automobile du Québec conducted a roadside survey in June 2001 on truck drivers to assess their use of alcohol and/or drugs. SAAQ motor carrier enforcement officers intercepted a total of 2,803 truckers who were asked to take part in the survey, of whom 2,679 (96%) eligible drivers agreed to participate. Of that number, 2,172 (81%) gave a urine sample, 2,541(95%) a saliva sample and 2,629 (98%) a breath sample. Chemists at the Centre de toxicologie du Québec were entrusted with analysis of the biological samples. The roadside collection of samples required elaborate planning. Achieving optimal participation was kept in mind in setting up the survey, which was considered in that light under all its aspects. Only two truck drivers (0.03 %) had a BAC above 0.08, while another 6 (0.2 %) had a BAC between 0.02 and 0.08. According to the toxicological analysis of urine samples, drugs were found in the following proportions: cannabis (4,8 %) , amphetamines (2,9%), cocaine (1,4 %), opiates (0,6%) and benzodiazepines (0,3%).
Alcohol And Drug Use Among A Large Cohort Of Injured Vehicular Occupants And Pedestrians Treated In A Trauma Center
Alcohol, drugs, injury, vehicular crashes, pedestrians
Most studies of substance abuse among injured crash victims have focused on vehicular occupants. This study compared demographic factors and toxicology test results (alcohol, cocaine, opiates, cannabis) in a large cohort of injured occupants and pedestrians admitted to a trauma center. Data were analyzed from a large clinical toxicology database from 1996 through 2000. There were 9,947 occupants and 1,547 pedestrians available for study. Alcohol and other drug testing rates were 98% and 47%, respectively, with no testing biases. Sixty-one percent of occupants and 73% of pedestrians were men (p<.01). Thirty-four percent of occupants were ?40 years compared with 39% of pedestrians (p<0.01). Compared with occupants, significantly higher percentages of pedestrians tested positive for alcohol (27% vs 20%, p<.01), cocaine (20% vs 9%, p<.01) and opiates (24% vs 18%, p<.01) There was no statistical difference in the percentage of pedestrians (13%) and occupants (15%) testing positive for cannabis.
Alcohol and Drug Use by Professional Drivers in Spain
Alcohol, medication, health status, professional drivers, Spain
The self evaluation of health status, the presence of pathological processes and the consumption patterns of medicaments and alcohol in a sample of Spanish professional drivers is analyzed in this study. 13% of professional drivers claim to suffer a pathological process, while 12.75% say they are taking medicaments. 46% of professional drivers drink alcohol every week, with an average consumption of 16.8 ± 11.8 grams of pure alcohol per day, and 8.7% have a score of 8 or more points in the AUDIT test. These results show that the presence of pathological processes, the consumption of medicaments, of alcohol and its related problems is frequent in Spanish professional drivers.
Alcohol and the Perception of Speed
Alcohol, ethanol, speed perception, risk-taking, gap-acceptance, time-to-collision, age
Alcohol-affected drivers, and specifically young alcohol-affected driver, are over represented in road accidents in New South Wales. This single-blind study assessed the effects of a moderate dose of alcohol on inexperienced and mature drivers’ reaction times, perception of vehicle speed, awareness, and ability to perform complex driving manoeuvres such as overtaking. Participants (20 males and 20 females) were required to consume an amount of alcohol sufficient to reach a target blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.080 g dL-1, and undertook two experimental sessions on the STISIM Drive© Driving Simulator at 30, 60 and 90 minutes. Comparisons were made between performances at target BACs of 0.000 g dL-1 (placebo condition) and 0.080 g dL- 1, as well as between the performances of young and mature drivers.
Alcohol Involvement in Recreational Vehicle
Operator Fatalities in Canada
Alcohol Involvement, Recreational Vehicle
Operator Fatalities, Canada
This paper provides an update on previous work that examined alcohol use among fatally injured operators of three types of recreational vehicles – snowmobiles, bicycles and all terrain vehicles (ATVs). It uses data from the TIRF Fatality Database from 1987 through 1999 to compare alcohol involvement in fatally injured operators of these vehicles to that among fatally injured drivers of automobiles. The implications of the findings for programs and policies are discussed.
Alcohol Problems among Swedish Drivers Suspected of DUI
Road safety, drink driving, road crashes, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), DUI offenders, Sweden
2.104 drivers suspected of DUI recruited from different geographical regions of Sweden and a control group of 785 drivers not suspected of DUI responded to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Alcohol problems according to the AUDIT was four times as common among the male and female suspected DUI:s detected in general traffic controls as compared to the control drivers. Most interesting was the observation that almost half (46%) of the suspects with a BAC below the Swedish legal limit of 0.02% were found to have alcohol problems this is almost the same prevalence as among those with a BAC of 0.02- 0.099%. Drivers detected during the afternoon-hours had both the highest BAC and the highest prevalence of drinking problems. Alcohol problems among middle-aged female drivers suspected of DUI were particularly severe. Regional differences in BAC and prevalence of alcohol problem were found.
Alcohol Related Road Accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany – Status till 2000
Alcohol, accidents, traffic safety
In January 1993 in all parts of Germany the same BAC limit of 0.08 % became a legal requirement. In 1998 a second BAC-limit of 0.05 % was introduced, which indicated an offence without suspension of licence. The stricter limit was accompanied by a newly introduced limit for breath alcohol concentration of 0.25 mg/l. Instead of taking blood samples the police can carry out breath tests using special measuring instruments. This new and less costly testing procedure is admissible evidence in a court of law. Since April 2001 the limit of 0.05 % has replaced the limit of 0.08 % as an offence, which carries suspension of licence for at least one month.
Alcohol, Travelling Speed and the Risk of Crash Involvement
Alcohol, Travelling Speed, Risk of Crash Involvement, Australia
This paper compares the relationship between two factors that are known to affect the relative risk of involvement in a casualty crash: a driver's blood alcohol level and his or her choice of free travelling speed. It is concluded that measures which reduce travelling speeds are likely to be at least as effective in reducing the frequency of casualty crashes in Adelaide as measures which reduce drivers' blood alcohol levels.
Alcohol-Impaired Driving Recidivism Among First Offenders More Closely Resembles That of Multiple Offenders
Road safety, drink driving, Recidivism, First Offenders, Multiple Offenders, intoxicated (DWI), breath alcohol content (BrAC), USA
Alcohol-impaired driving legislation and sanctions have historically been aimed at the offender with multiple driving while intoxicated (DWI) convictions, with little or no attention paid to the first-time offender or to alcohol-related events other than DWI [such as administrative per se (APS) violations involving breath alcohol content (BrAC) of 0.10 or more, APS breath test refusal and probation before judgment (PBJ)]. It is a widely held belief among the legislature and judicial branches of state government that first offenders criminally convicted of an alcoholrelated traffic law are drivers with a single and isolated alcohol-related violation that results in arrest. This finding is inconsistent with published estimates that a person can drive while impaired by alcohol 200 to 2,000 times before being arrested once for alcohol-impaired driving (1-6). Moreover, some drivers manage to have their records expunged under certain conditions, and many state motor vehicle administration (MVA) offices routinely purge driving records after a set number of years. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the typical so-called first-time offender will have had an extensive history of alcohol-impaired driving by the time he or she makes it into the MVA’s record system. The current research examines the relative risk of alcohol-related recidivism among drivers with one, two and three or more alcohol-related events (not just convictions) and expands prior research (7) using an updated data set. Our findings suggest that first-time alcohol-related traffic offenders are at a high and significant risk of recidivating even after one alcohol-related event and that alcohol-impaired driving recidivism among first offenders more closely resembles that of multiple alcohol offenders. The results demonstrate that any alcohol-related traffic event (APS BrAC of 0.10 or more, APS breath refusal, and PBJ), not just convictions, should be perceived by the courts, the MVA, and physicians as a marker for future alcohol-related recidivism. The results also suggest that relative risk among females is similar to the risk among males once females have had one alcohol-related event.
Alcohol-Related Traffic Offences Among Elderly Persons Over the Age of 60: Comparison Between a Provincial and a
Metropolitan Area in Germany
Blood alcohol, elderly drivers, traffic offences, accidents
This study gives a survey on the characteristics of drunken driving in elderly persons (? 60 years) compared with younger offenders (< 60 years). It is based on the evaluation of the alcohol data banks of two German university institutes of forensic medicine in the 10-yearinterval from 1991 to 2000. The proportion of elderly drunken drivers is still relatively small, but has increased continuously. Senior citizens showed lower average blood alcohol concentrations, but revealed stronger influence by alcohol and were relatively over-represented in various types of accidents. The development in a provincial and a metropolitan area of Germany was comparable.