Conference Proceedings and Papers

Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.

 

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Search results for: 15th_T2000_Stockholm
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15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
CLINICAL SIGNS OF DRUG USE IN DRIVERS, COMPARISON BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT TEST BATTERIES, THEIR INTEREST, THEIR LIMITS AND THEIR FUTURE EVOLUTION
Author/s
MERCIER-GUYON, C., MALLARET, M. LAGIER, G.
Year Published
2000
Keywords
impairment, behaviour, drugs
Description / summary
(Poster) Generally, the countries which began to use simple tests of impairment evaluation by policemen have observed that the policeman got a rather efficient use of those tests and the natural tendancy, after some years, was to complete the test batteries used with more complex tests. This demand from the police officers is frequently observed, after the first difficulties or refusal. However, this evolution to an increasing complexity of test batteries faces different difficulties or limits.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
Effects of North Carolina's 0.08% BAC Limit
Author/s
Foss, R.D.; Stewart, J.R.; Reinfurt, D.W.
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Automobile driving; alcohol drinking; traffic accidents; accident prevention
Description / summary
Studies of the effects of 80 mg/dL (0.08%) BAC laws on motor vehicle crashes in the U.S. have found equivocal and somewhat conflicting results. The present study was conducted to clarify the effect of reducing the BAC limit from 100 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL without the confounding effect of a new administrative license revocation law. Using time-series analysis we found no significant change in the rate or the trend of several measures of alcohol involvement in crashes coinciding with introduction of the lower BAC limit. Finally, using FARS data we compared several measures of alcohol involvement--(1) driver BAC > 10 mg/dL, (2) driver BAC > 100 mg/dL, (3) police-reported alcohol involvement, (4) single vehicle nighttime crash, (5) single vehicle nighttime male driver crash, and (6) estimated alcohol involvement--for North Carolina with 37 states that had retained higher per se limits from 1991 through 1996. Comparing 24 months before and after enactment of the NC law, no measure declined by a significantly greater amount in North Carolina than in the other 37 states. Hence, it appears that lowering the BAC limit to 80 mg/dL in North Carolina did not affect alcohol-related crashes.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
Fifty Years of Research into the Pharmacology and Toxicology of Drugs other than Alcohol with reference to Traffic Safety
Author/s
de Gier, J.J.
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Pharmacology; toxicology; illicit drugs; medicinal drugs; traffic safety
Description / summary
(Plenary) This paper will describe some but not all of the highlights in the pharmacology and toxicology of psychotropic substances and explain why future discussions on the use of drugs other than alcohol by drivers will be influenced by recent advances as they can presently be judged. The approach to fifty years of research will be based primarily on discussing the link between human brain and traffic safety and to describe the exciting world of psychopharmacology. This will help us to understand how the human brain under the influence of psychotropic substances is able to affect our behaviour and skills, especially those relating to driving, and thereby affect traffic safety. It is important to realise that recent advances in psychopharmacology will eventually guide us to new classes of drugs, which will be therapeutically superior to old psychotropic medicines because of their lack of unwanted side-effects such as dependence, amnesia and sedation.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
A Computer-based Quality Control Program for Evidential Breath Analyzers; a Finnish Model
Author/s
M.Portman, P.Luntiala, P.Paloheimo, P.Nevala, P.Holopainen and K. Kuoppasalmi
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Computer-based Quality Control Program, Evidential Breath Analyzers, Alcotest 7110 MK III FIN, drink driving, Finland
Description / summary
The computer-based quality control program for evidential breath analyzers (Alcotest 7110 MK III FIN) has been in use in Finland since July 1998. Eighty-five instruments have been placed at police stations in different regions of the country. Every instrument is connected to a personal computer (PC) with a specially designed program. Every PC is further connected to a central computer of the police. The collected data is transferred daily to the National Public Health Institute (KTL). There, a specially designed program checks the incoming data. The data from each case is sent through this control system and a check and a recalculation of both technical and analytical data takes place. The rest of the information related to the driving situation is weekly sent to KTL. This data forms the base for epidemiological statistics. KTL also analyses all the blood samples of drunken drivers in Finland. Therefore, it has the corresponding data from those blood samples too. The centralised system with breath samples makes it possible to analyse the whole material and to follow the situation of drunken driving in Finland as a whole.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
A Depletion Compensated Wet Bath Simulator For Calibrating Evidential Breath Alcohol Analyzers
Author/s
Slemeyer, A.
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Breath alcohol analyzer, calibration, simulator, partition ratio, ethanol.
Description / summary
(Poster) Wet bath simulators have been in use for more than 4 decades for calibrating breath alcohol analyzers as they deliver a gas sample similar to human breath with regard to temperature and relative humidity. As the alcohol concentration in the liquid is depleted due to evaporation losses the solution has to be changed after a certain number of tests. This restricted their use in automated calibration systems. The paper describes the design principle of a new wet bath simulator system that offers a long-term stable output concentration at a defined temperature. The compensation of the evaporation losses of ethanol in the liquid phase is done by replacing a certain amount of the simulator solution. The amount of fresh solution supplied after each test is depending on the
volume of generated gas.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
A driving simulator study on driving performance and traffic safety after multiple drug use, consisting of MDMA (Ecstasy) and various other psychoactive compounds
Author/s
Brookhui,s K.A., DeWaard, D., & Perno,t L.M.C.
Year Published
2000
Keywords
MDMA, multiple drug use, driving performance, driving simulator
Description / summary
A group of young people who had indicated that they regularly visit phaorutsiee-sp aorft ythe type, using MDMA and other drugs including alcohol, were tested in a driving simulator, early in the morning shortly after having visited a party, under the influence of MDMA and possibly various other drugs. The participants were first tested before the party under the influence of MDMA alone and also tested sober, i.e. on a control night at a comparable time. The latter is reported elsewhere in this volume. After the party, at their wish, they were pick up at the party, brought to the test facility again and tested. In the simulator they again completed a test ride that included driving in an urban environment and on a motorway. Performance was assessed in terms of lateral control (swerving), longitudinal control (spee headway) and decision making (response to braking manoeuvres of leading cars, gap acceptance while crossing a junction). In addition to performance participants' self-reports performance and experienced effects were collected. Results indicate that basic vehicle control is only moderately affected. There are, however, indications that more so than unde
the influence of MDMA alone, after the party subjects accept higher levels of risk.

Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
A driving simulator study on the effects of MDMA (Ecstasy) on driving performance and traffic safety
Author/s
De Waard, D., Brookhuis, K.A., & Pernot, L.M.C.
Year Published
2000
Keywords
MDMA, ecstasy, driving performance, driving simulator
Description / summary
A group of young people who had indicated that they regularly use MDMA were tested in an advanced driving simulator, shortly after the use of MDMA, just before going to a party. The participants were also tested sober, i.e. on a control night at a comparable time. In the simulator they completed a test ride that included driving in an urban environment and on a motorway. Performance was assessed in terms of lateral control (swerving), longitudinal control (speed, headway) and decision making (response to braking manoeuvres of leading cars, gap acceptance while crossing a junction). In addition to performance participants' self- reports on performance and experienced effects were collected. Results indicate that basic vehicle control is only moderately affected. There are, however, indications that under the influence of MDMA subjects accept higher levels of risk.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
A Rapid Instrumented Fluorescence Immunoassay for the Detection of Tetrahydrocannabinols
Author/s
Liang, G.; Chang, C.; Avila, A.; Wang, G.; Foley, T.
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Marijuana; saliva; fluorescence immunoassay; drugs of abuse; immunosensor.
Description / summary
(Poster) A rapid instrumented fluorescence immunoassay for the detection and quantitation of tetrahydrocarnnabinols (THC) in oral fluids has been developed for use in testing for marijuana abuse. The lower detection limits for (l)-?9-THC and (l)9-Carboxy-11-nor-?9-THC was found to be 1.5 ng/mL and 5.5 ng/mL, espectively. Having a total assay reaction time of less than 10 minutes, the assay is ideally suited for use in point-of-care testing of saliva THC by law enforcement and in the workplace.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
A Rehabilitation Evaluation Study of Swedish DUI s
Author/s
A. Andren, H. Bergman and F. Schlyter, H. Laurell
Year Published
2000
Keywords
DUI legislation, heavy DUI, special prisons, rehabilitation, Sweden
Description / summary
In 1994 a number of alterations in the Swedish DUI legislation were implemented towards a tougher attitude against DUI-drivers. The legal consequences for driving while intoxicated were sharpened. The limit for "heavy DUI" was lowered from 1.5 to 1.0 BAC and the maximum penalty was prolonged to two years. The Swedish Prison and Probation Administration decided to start two "special prisons" for DUI convicted inmates where they should be offered rehabilitation instead of just punishment. An independent evaluation was also decided upon, right from the start. This evaluation is done at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. The final evaluation will be based on 804 (82%) convicted DUI's that were randomized to one of three programs while imprisoned
and a comparison group of 176 (18%) not randomized clients. Both groups are to be compared with convicted DUI's in ordinary prisons during the same period. In this article we will present the evaluation project design and some results for the first 333 (34 %) clients that were followed up after two years.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
A Review of Research on Vehicle Sanctions in the U.S.A
Author/s
Levy, MM ; Frank, IF
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Alcohol; driver; accident; crash; traffic; enforcement; sanctions; vehicle sanctions
Description / summary
Revoking or suspending a motorist's operators license is now a common penalty for many traffic infractions, especially those related to alcohol-impaired driving. Unfortunately, many of these offenders continue to drive. Suspended drivers frequently receive additional traffic citations or are involved in crashes during periods of license suspension. As a way of addressing this problem, 46 states within the U.S. have enacted laws designed to reduce the likelihood of illegal driving by sanctioning offenders' vehicles for impaired driving offenses or for driving with a suspended license. This paper describes research evaluating the effectiveness of various vehicle sanctions for reducing illegal driving. Findings from recent research in California and Ohio on the effects of vehicle impoundment and immobilization will be reviewed, and activities at the national level are described.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
A road side survey of drinking drivers in Perth, Western Australia
Author/s
Ryan, G.A.
Year Published
2000
Keywords
roadside survey, crash risk, blood alcohol concentration, random breath testing
Description / summary
A police 'booze' bus was used to obtain a systematic sample of breath tests from drivers in Perth, Western Australia between 2200 and 0300 on Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights over about six weeks in September and October, 1999. Of the 8616 tests, 1.92% were over 0.05gm%, the legal limit. There was a higher percentage of drivers with an illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on Friday nights and after midnight compared with other times. The blood alcohol distribution of survey drivers was compared with that of drivers involved in crashes during the same hours and days of the week for 1997. The ratio of crash to survey drivers at a BAC of 0.05 was about 5:1, at 0.08, about 25:1 and over 0.150, about 80:1. This survey has provided a baseline description of the drink driving behaviour of drivers in Perth for comparison with subsequent surveys in following years.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
A turn of the wheel: Women's experiences with drinking and driving
Author/s
Kelley Baker, T.; Lange, J.E.; Voas, R.B.
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Women; alcohol use; drinking and driving
Description / summary
Several studies have reported that drinking and driving has declined in recent years. The effect, however, may be primarily in male drivers (Popkin, 1991, 1993). Although men who die in motor vehicle crashes are almost twice as likely as women to be legally intoxicated, women are apparently drinking and driving more often, and their involvement in alcohol-related fatal crashes is increasing (CDC, 1992). Four recent random-digit dial telephone surveys were used to examine self-reported drinking- and-driving experiences (DDEs) among women aged 16 to 20. Questions posed measured alcohol consumption, knowledge, risk perception, drinking environment, and their relationship to DDEs. Although all four surveys were California samples, they varied on age and geographic restrictions. Similar results, however, were obtained from all four.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
Accreditation for bodies providing driving licence services
Author/s
Weinand M
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Accreditation; driver aptitude test; driver improvement course; driving test; surveillance; assessment.
Description / summary
(Poster) In 1999 the accreditation body accomplished the first accreditation and two other accreditation procedures started were in the field of driver aptitude testing. The resulting experiences suggest that accreditation for bodies providing driving licence services not only can ensure but in addition improve the quality of these services.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
Age and Gender-Related Differences in Blood and Breath- alcohol Concentration among Drinking Drivers in Sweden
Author/s
Berglund, K.l and Jones, A.W.
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Age; gender; blood-alcohol, breath-alcohol, drunk drivers, Sweden
Description / summary
Age and gender-related differences in blood- and breath-alcohol concentrations were investigated among drinking drivers apprehended in Sweden between 1994 and 1998. During this 5-year period the number of suspects decreased appreciably from 21000 to 14600. The concentration of alcohol was below the statutory limits (0.2 mglg blood or 0.1 mglL breath) in about 20% of suspects after making an allowance for uncertainty. About 11% of all drunk drivers were women. The mean concentration of alcohol was about 50% higher for those who gave blood samples compared with evidential breath tests regardless of gender. The median age of drunk drivers tended to be higher for women then for men but the average alcohol concentration was higher for men than for women. The average alcohol concentration for all groups regardless of gender increased between 1995 and 1998. The age distribution changed over the period studied with the proportion of drivers between 20-29 years decreasing and those aged 50 and over increasing. This trend was consistent in all subgroups so the average and median ages of drunk drivers in Sweden increased. This survey shows that drinking drivers in Sweden are getting fewer, older and drunker.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
Age of Drinking Onset, Driving After Drinking, and Invo vement in Alcohol Related Motor Vehicle Crashes
Author/s
Hingson, R., Heeren, T., Levenson, S., Jamanka, A., Voas, R
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Alcohol; drinking onset, driving after drinking, motor vehicle crashes
Description / summary
To assess whether earlier drinking onset relates to drunk driving and alcohol related crash involvement over the life course. A national survey asked 42,862 respondents the age they started drinking, whether they drove after drinking too much, and were in motor vehicle accidents because of their drinking. The earlier the age respondents started drinking, the more likely they were to report driving after drinking too much and being in a motor vehicle crash because of their drinking even after adjusting for current/ever diagnosis of alcohol dependence and other characteristics and behaviors associated with the age respondents started drinking. Traffic safety benefits of delaying drinking may extend well beyond the legal drinking age of 21.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
Alcohol and Boating-Related Fatalities in North Carolina
Author/s
Foss, R.D. ; Bartley, C.L. ; Smith, G.S.
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Alcohol drinking, drowning, epidemiology, motor vehicles
Description / summary
Alcohol use is widely believed to be an important contributing factor in boating crashes and boating-related injuries and fatalities. As part of a multi-year case-control study of the role of alcohol in boating-related fatalities in North Carolina, we examined characteristics of 349 cases reported to the North Carolina Medical Examiner s Office from 1989 through 1998. Victims were almost exclusively male and ranged widely in age, although there were relatively few children. Fatalities occurred mainly in the spring and summer months, during the hours between noon and 7 p.m., and on weekends. In just over half of cases the victim was the operator of the boat. Forty-two percent of individuals age 16 and above for whom a valid BAC was obtained had measurable amounts of alcohol; 27% had BACs in excess of 100 mg/dL; 11% were above 200 mg/dL. The presence of any alcohol and high BAC (> 100 mg/dL) were generally unrelated to victim characteristics, position in the boat, or environmental circumstances. In comparison with alcohol
involvement (for drivers and passengers) in fatal motor vehicle crashes, a somewhat greater proportion of boating fatalities exhibited measurable amounts of alcohol, but more motor vehicle occupants had BACs in excess of 100 mg/dL. Results suggest that interventions and policies to reduce alcohol-related recreational boating deaths will need to be substantially different from those that are used to prevent drinking-driving deaths.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
Alcohol and Boating: Who Drinks and Who Dies
Author/s
Smith, G.S.; Keyl, P.; Hadley, J.; McKnight,J.; Foss, RD.
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Epidemiology, alcohol, boating, transportation,wounds and injuries
Description / summary
Breath samples were obtained on 82% of boaters (74% of respondents were male). Drinking on the day of the survey was reported by 33% of respondents, but only 24% had a positive BAC: (10% > 50 mg/dl, 5% > 100 mg). Drinking was higher among: 25-44 year olds (30% BAC positive), those in cabin motorboats (34%), those swimming and cruising (33% and 25% retrospectively), and lowest for fishing (9%). Those with positive BACs increased from 4% at 9 a.m. to 40% after 9 p.m. High BACs were similar in operators and passengers, and between men and women. Crude comparison of BAC in boaters in the survey to boating fatalities in Maryland show that elevated BACs are much more prevalent in fatalities.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
Alcohol and Driving Performance
Author/s
A. Elgarov, R. Aramisova
Year Published
2000
Keywords
driver; safety; performance; alcohol
Description / summary
Alcohol has already acquired a leading standing in danger factors for the roadside safety (RS). This is confirmed by a number of studies performed in various countries [4-7]. The car accident (CA) rate analysis in relation with drunken driving within the period from 1986 to 1994, which we attempted earlier [1,3], revealed that alcohol abusage "contributed" a lot into the crash-related epidemiological situation in Kabardino-Balkaria. Thus, of the total CA number, 7.50-10.6% were due to alcohol abusage, which caused 5.3-10.8% and 9.5-11.6% fatalities and inJuries, accordingly. Private vehicle drivers faults led to higher CA frequency rates (70.0-76.6%) than those caused by drunken driving in commercial vehicle drivers (23.4-30.0%), and this may be accounted for by the inconsistencies and the shortcomings of the legislative and administrative basis that should, but so far does not, effectuate alcohol consumption control in vehicle drivers (VD).
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
Alcohol and Drug Impaired Pedestrians Killed or Injured in Motor Vehicle Collisions
Author/s
Wilson, RJ; Fang, M
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Pedestrians; collisions; injuries; fatalities; impairment; countermeasures
Description / summary
Collisions involving impaired pedestrians present a particular challenge because there are few known effective countermeasures to prevent them. This article examines the nature of impaired pedestrian casualty collisions in comparison to collisions involving non-impaired pedestrians. Police reports are the primary data source. Comparison to Coroners' reports on fatal pedestrian collisions suggests that police reports substantially underestimate the scope of the problem. The results are similar to those reported for other countries. The impaired pedestrians were mainly responsible for their collisions. However, the reports suggest that about 20% of drivers also contributed to these collisions. No evidence was found to suggest that police road check enforcement activity aimed at drinking drivers exacerbated the impaired pedestrian problem. The results suggest that countermeasures should target high risk areas where impaired pedestrian
collisions are most frequent.
Category
15th_T2000_Stockholm
Paper Title
Alcohol and Drug Impaired Pedestrians Killed or Injured in Motor Vehicle Collisions
Author/s
Wilson, RJ; Fang, M
Year Published
2000
Keywords
Pedestrians; collisions; injuries; fatalities; impairment; countermeasures
Description / summary
Collisions involving impaired pedestrians present a particular challenge because there are few known effective countermeasures to prevent them. This article examines the nature of impaired pedestrian casualty collisions in comparison to collisions involving non-impaired pedestrians. Police reports are the primary data source. Comparison to Coroners' reports on fatal pedestrian collisions suggests that police reports substantially underestimate the scope of the problem. The results are similar to those reported for other countries. The impaired pedestrians were mainly responsible for their collisions. However, the reports suggest that about 20% of drivers also contributed to these collisions. No evidence was found to suggest that police road check enforcement activity aimed at drinking drivers exacerbated the impaired pedestrian problem. The results suggest that countermeasures should target high risk areas where impaired pedestrian
collisions are most frequent.