Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 14th_T1997_ Annecy
5-Hydroxytryptophol (5HTOL), a New Sensitive Urinary Test of Recent Alcohol Consumption
Drink driving, Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents,5-Hydroxytryptophol (5HTOL), Sweden
There are obvious applications for the 5HTOL/5HIAA ratio as a relapse marker in connection with rehabilitation of alcohol dependent subjects as well as drunk drivers who must refrain from drinking. In outpatient settings, 5HTOL testing revealed single relapses which were otherwise not detected, such as by self-reports or conventional markers of excessive drinking (Voltaire Carlsson et al., 1993). Furthermore, 5HTOL can be utilised as a biochemical complement to self-reported alcohol consumption when new treatment models and new markers of alcohol misuse are being evaluated. In forensic medicine, the 5HTOL/5H1AA ratio has already been used to detect artifactual formation of ethanol, for example to distinguish ingested from microbially formed ethanol in post-mortem specimens.
A collaborative group for implementing different types of intervention among drunk-drivers : the daily life of the EVACAPA project team
Road safety, road crashes, drink driving, EVACAPA project team, France
In this project, we have been trying to be involved in a lasting marriage. The engagement was, not exactly restful! Sometimes a fiance got bored and wanted to leave the relationship, but the other one looked immediately for hundred of good reasons to encourage him/her to get still involved in the marriage project. More, some people didn’t want this marriage and they organized many traps hoping the spouses will split up In a relationship, the most important thing is to feel like continuing the discovery of each other and also to avoid the burn -out: How not dying exhausted like a chameleon on a tartan skirt.
A Comparison of Different Indicators of the Outcome Effectiveness of Drink Driving Rehabilitation Programs
Road safety,road crashes, drink driving, Rehabilitation Programs, Australia
In 1993 an innovative drink driving rehabilitation program “ Under the Limit” was implemented in a rural region of Australia. In its design the program drew heavily on community participation and applied the “ community reinforcement” approach which has been well evaluated in alcohol treatment programs. To date 2000 offenders referred through the courts have completed the program. A wide variety of approaches to evaluating its impact have been employed including the standard comparison of control and matched sample recidivism rates.
A comparison of the performance of drager alcotest 7110 MKIII and camic datamaster evidential breath testing instruments
Drink driving, Breath Alcohol testing, road traffic accidents, drager alcotest 7110 MKIII, Helsinki, Finland
Due to the simultaneity of the measurements with both instruments and the taking of the blood sample a comparison could be made in the test-group a comparison between the instruments with the blood alcohol result as a reference. Differences in blood/breath ratio does not affect this comparison. Only one instrument of each was tested. A better representation might have been achieved if a greater number of instruments had been used. This is especially true for the judgement of features observed in the practical use, such as reliability and facility of handling.
A Comprehensive Community Program to Prevent Alcohol-Involved Crashes: Early Results from a Trial in the U.S.
Road accidents, Drink driving, Alcoholism Reduction, Community Program to Prevent Alcohol-Involved Crashes, DUI enforcement levels, USA
The evaluation of this component found that media advocacy efforts increased DUI news coverage, that greater police activity (officer time, training, equipment, and checkpoints) increased DUI enforcement levels, and that both resulted in higher perceived risk of arrest for drinking and driving. The increased perception of risk yielded lower self-reported drinking and driving and overall the component (through the above causal chain) produced statistically significant traffic crash reductions.
A historical overview of breath testing from 1835 through to 1997 and the introduction of LIBIS - Lion Intoxilyzer Breath testing Information System
Drink driving, Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents, Traffic Safety,LIBIS - Lion Intoxilyzer Breath testing Information System,
In conjunction with the introduction of the Lion Intoxilyzer 6000 in 1997, STL Technologies, in partnership with Lion Laboratories have launched a new computer system that has proved 100% effective in reducing these procedural errors. The new system is called LIB IS which is an acronym for Lion Intoxilizer 6000 Breath-testing Input System.
A Laboratory Study of Passive Alcohol Sensors
passive alcohol sensor (PAS), Drink driving, alcohol-related traffic enforcement, breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), USA
A passive alcohol sensor (PAS) captures and processes a sample of air to determine whether alcohol is present. If it can be shown that a PAS held near a driver’s mouth reliably detects alcohol in expired breath, the instrument will aid police officers in alcohol-related traffic enforcement. Three PAS instruments were examined with 48 subjects (Ss) in a separate groups design. Ss were assigned by random procedures for repeated measurement with one instrument. The mean breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), as measured with an Intoxilyzer 5000 30 mins after completion o f drinking, was 0.08%. PAS readings were obtained Predose, at peak BrAC, and at nine post-peak times. One instrument allows sampling only when positioned 5 to 7.5 inches from the S.’s mouth. The other instruments permit variable distances and were tested at 6 and 8 inches. Data were examined with BrAC criteria of 0.00%, 0 .0 4% , and 0.08%. No false positives occurred; if no alcohol was present, the probability of a positive PAS reading was zero. PAS values were lower and more variable than Intoxilyzer readings. The findings support use o f PAS in conjunction with, not in lieu of, field sobriety tests and preliminary breath testing instruments.
A Multi-Campus Environmental Approach For
Preventing Alcohol Impaired Driving
Traffic safety, Drink Driving, road crashes, Multi-Campus Environmental Approach
Preventing Alcohol Impaired Driving, USA
The overall project was successful at developing a cadre of trained students with interest in impacting alcohol problems through changing campus norms and environments. These students showed that with some direction they are capable of developing and implementing innovative and relevant alcohol prevention programs. The behavioral result of these intervention are still to be determined.
A Protocol Strategy for an Accurate Diagnosis of Alcoholism : The Value of Biological Parameters
Drink driving, Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents, Traffic Safety, Biological Parameters, The Netherlands
In The Netherlands, individuals arrested for driving under the influence o f alcohol, are obliged to undergo a medical examination to evaluate whether there is a medical disorder. In most cases the aim o f this examination is to determine whether the driver can be diagnosed as having alcohol dependence or recent recurrent periods o f alcohol abuse. In case of a positive diagnosis, the driver's licence will be withdrawn, until the driver has recovered from alcoholism. The consequences of losing one’s driver’s licence may be dramatic : it can cause some to lose their job, others to become socially invalided. Loss o f a driver’s licence can result in legal claims against the institutions and medical pratitioners who participate in these examinations. The diagnosis of alcoholism has to be defended, if necessary, against “expert” second opinions in court.
A Study of the Abuse of Alcoholic Beverage among College Students by using the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale(AAIS) Part 2
Traffic safety, Drink Driving, road crashes, Abuse of Alcoholic Beverage, College Students, Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale(AAIS), Japan
We have reported already the above mentioned theme Part 1 in Jpn.Alcohol&Drug Dependence.31,264-276(1996). In that paper we investigated the average score of AAIS of each response to each question of questionnare, in this paper we investigated the distribution of percentage of each response according to AAIS distinction to each question of questionnaire. [Method] Subject: 288 college student(74 boys, 213 girls and unknown 1), Survey time: June 1995. AAIS, which was developed for screening of alcohol abuse in youth, is compose 14 questions and the response to each question is scored 0 to 8 and the highest total is 79. The score of 42 or above is defined as indicating alcohol misuse interfering with psycological function, social relation, or family living. [Results] The distribution curve of percentage of each responce according to AAIS distinction in the case of sex distinction have a tendency to distribute to a higher side of AAIS score in the case of boys than girls. The distribution curves of the lodging house students and one's own house students have a same type as the type in the case o f sex distinction. The distribution curve of athletic club belonging students is higher side than that o f students not belonging to club activity. The diferrences among the distribution curves of each response were clear in 6 questions among 14 questions in AAIS questionnaire.
Addictive behaviour and drug addiction
Road safety, road accidents, Addictive behaviour, drug addiction, France
The current evolution of the notion of addiction is in flux, and is going in the direction of an extension of the nosographic limits of this concept. Formerly centered around pharmacological dependancy, addictive behavior is considered today like a way of living and reacting of which addiction, to a substance or to an activity, is the expression of a search for pleasure and of which the deleterious consequences are disregarded (1). As we have seen, defining addictive behavior isn't always simple, but it is nevertheless necessary to keep this dimension in mind in order to optimise the follow-up of patients.
Administrative Driver’s Licence Suspensions in Ontario: Tracking effects on public knowledge and behaviour
traffic crashes, Drink driving,impaired driving, Driver’s Licence Suspensions, public knowledge and behaviour, Ontario, Canada
The impact on self-reported drinking-driving behaviour is consistent with a beneficial effect of the law, but is not as clear as the impact on knowledge. Specifically, in June/July rates o f selfreported drinking-driving within the past 30 days were as low as those seen after introduction of the law in December/January. There may be several possible explanations for this observation. The fluctuations observed may not be due to the impact of the law, but instead are simply random variation. Alternatively, these different levels could be due to naturally occurring seasonal variation in drinking-driving rates. However, the lower rates of drinking driving observed in June/July may also have been related to the media attention given to the passage of the Bill in early July enabling the introduction of ADLS. As a result, some drivers may have reduced driving after drinking at that time.
Adolescent Crashes and Offenses by Gender:
Implications for Prevention
Adolescent Crashes, drink driving, road safety, prevention programs, USA
Likelihood ratio test results that compared several logistic regression models showed that race, living situation, substance availability, perceived parents' attitude regarding teens' drinking, and grades were important in explaining young men's driving offenses. Predicted probabilities were calculated using parameter estimates in the final model. The lowest probabilities for offenses occurred among young men who reported living with both parents, parents who were negative regarding teens' drinking, no substance availability, and high grades (8.1% for white men; 4.8% for men of other races). In contrast, the highest probabilities for offenses occurred among young men who reported not living with both parents, parents who were neutral on teens' drinking and allowed drinking, high substance availability, and low grades (71.0% for white men; 58.3% for men of other races).
Alberta interlock program: Services intervention update
Drink driving, Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents, breath alcohol ignition interlock devices (BAUD), DWI offenders, Canada
Evidence from several sources shows that during the time breath alcohol ignition interlock devices (BAUD) are installed on the vehicles of alcohol offenders, there is a reduction in rearrest relative to comparison samples. Some sample selection bias has been present in all studies so it is not yet clear how effective the BAIID could be with the average alcohol offender. The size of the interlock effects which have been reported, however, are large and suggest that offenders who are motivated to have their driving privileges fully restored, and are willing to abide by the restrictions o f BAIID-monitored driving, will have recidivism rates below those of comparison offenders. Data aggregated from the U.S. State of West Virginia (Tippetts & Voas, 1997) have shown that among 591 offenders required to drive with a BAIID for one year, only 8 drivers (1.35%) reoffended during that interval (apparently in non-interlock vehicles). By contrast, two groups without BAIIDs (totalling 19,067 offenders matched for prior offenses) had reoffense rates of 5% and 6 % during the same period. This three fold reduction in rearrest is similar to the rate reported by Morse and Elliott (1993) who found 3% relative to 9% reoffending during a similar interval. These differences do not reflect random assignment from a common pool, so those who choose a BAIID may have different expected reoffense rates from those who don’t. But once removed from the vehicle, interlock-using offenders look remarkably like other DUIs. That is, in all reports of interlock effects to date none have found much difference between the interlock and suspended groups after the period o f interlock controlled driving ends.
Alcohol and traffic accidents in insurance perspective
traffic accidents, Drink driving, driving under influence of alcohol, insurance perspective, Sweden
Both experimental and epidemiological research show that driving under influence of alcohol entails an elevated accident risk. The contribution from drunken driving to the level of traffic accidents differs between countries as do the legal system and contents of counter-measures. It is not so well observed or analysed which influence motor insurance with its terms and conditions has on traffic safety and drunken driving. Still it looks reasonable to anticipate that the insurance system together with the legal system are of importance for a more sober traffic with less accidents. The paper gives some notes with examples from Scandinavia.
Alcohol and traffic accidents in the Czech Republic
Road safety, drink driving, traffic accidents ,Czech Republic
The drinking of alcohol is an integral part of Czech social life and is accepted as such by most people. Sobriety driving motor vehicles also should be the part of our social life. Therefore we need to increase police traffic controls and the punishment for alcohol drinking drivers, to increase the standard of education about the risk of drinking and driving, to introduce the medical investigation before regaining driving licences and stop giving back driving licences to those who are addicted to alcohol or drugs and who lost the ability to control their alcohol consumption.
Alcohol and Traffic Safety in Sweden and the Role of Biologic Markers in Finding Alcohol Dependency
Drink driving, Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents, Traffic Safety, Biologic Markers, Sweden
In Sweden alcohol abuse is regarded as a dominating public health problem. It has been estimated that about 300 000 Swedes are alcohol abusers or alcohol dependent, corresponding to 4-5% of the male and 1-2% of the female population. As a consequence Sweden has a long tradition of strict DWI legislation which is well internalised in the general sense of justice. Thus, drunken driving is considered a serious crime and most Swedish drivers have a very negative attitude towards such behaviour (Aberg,1993). In the past few years the legislation has become more strict. The legal BAC-limit has been lowered. In 1991 Sweden introduced re-licensing requirements after having been sentenced with more than 0.15% BAC and in 1996 more rigorous regulations of the medical requirements for possession of a driving licence in case of alcohol dependency or abuse
Alcohol and working sphere to a widened preventive action
Road safety, road crashes, drink driving, Alcohol and working sphere, policy of prevention, France
Behaviour towards the problem of alcohol abuse is always difficult. We tried to provide it some answers. Training of the personnel, however its type may be, is of a high cost but represents an investment wich repercussions are reals, although with delay. The economic aspect indeed stays a powerful motivation. However, the first employer’s liability has to be the protection of his employees and of people who could be put in danger by the activities of the enterprise. The object of this action is making workers sensitive to the alcoholization results, in firms but also in the everyday’s life. Working sphere indeed stays, with school, one of the only privileged place to induce a collective sudden awareness, and develop an effective policy of prevention.
Alcohol as an injury-aggravating factor
Drink driving, Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents, injury- aggravating factor, traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) , treatment and rehabilitation, USA
The US now suffers over 10,000 new cases o f traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) each year. Motor vehicle accidents, especially rollover crashes, are the leading cause of SCI in the US (e.g., Thurman et al. 1995). Large percentages of persons who sustain SCI evidence use of beverage alcohol at the time they sustain injury. Most studies of nonfatal SCI indicated that between 25% and 50% of patients had consumed alcohol, and a large majority o f persons who had been drinking had alcohol concentrations o f 0.10% w/v or higher. Decades of research have established alcohol as the single most frequent contributing factor in motor vehicle crashes causing serious injury or death. The role of alcohol as an injury-aggravating factor, however, is less well understood. As a consequence, relationships among the presence and amount of alcohol, the severity of injury — in particular, injury to the spinal cord or head — and outcomes of treatment and rehabilitation are not well characterized.
Alcohol involvement in fatal road accidents in Spain
Road safety,road accidents, drink driving, fatal road accidents, blood alcohol limits, publicity campaigns, enforcement procedures, Spain
The present data show that as in most developed countries alcohol detection in people killed in road traffic accidents is common (Ferrara et al., 1994). It is widely recognized that alcohol consumption is a causal factor in 30-50% of fatal road accidents (Council on Scientific Affairs, 1986). It is of priority to intervene in the field of alcohol and driving. Drink-driving does have to be tackled in an integrated and multidisciplinary way: blood alcohol limits, publicity campaigns, enforcement procedures, and penalties, among other countermeasures.