Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 13th_T1995_Adelaide
A Cocaine Experiment: Time-of-Day and Hangover Effects
Cocaine, Time-of-Day , Hangover Effects, Divided Attention (D-A) and Vigilance (VIG) data, USA
Cocaine use often is part of night time social activities. To examine the drug’s effects in combination with time-of-day variables, 24 male Ss were given cocaine and tested between 1830 and 2400. After 8 hrs sleep in the laboratory, Ss were tested the following morning. Treatments were 5 mg (placebo), 96 mg, and 126 mg cocaine taken intranasally in 3 equal amounts at 1/2 hr intervals. The first test battery began 25 mins after the third dose and the second battery began 3 hrs later. Day 2 testing began 1/2 hr after Ss arose. Although subjectively-experienced stimulation by cocaine is relatively short-lived, Divided Attention (D-A) and Vigilance (VIG) data appear to demonstrate longer-duration performance effects. Performance was poorer near midnight than at the early test time, but
the difference was significant for overall D-A performance only in the placebo condition. At the second test time, scores were better with cocaine than with placebo. VIG RTs were significantly slowed at the second test time with 5 mg or 96 mg cocaine; with 126 mg there was no significant difference between test times. A trend toward poorer performance was observed on the morning after cocaine in comparison to the morning after placebo.
Accident Risk Modified by Passengers
Drink driving, Accident risk, simulated driving situation, young drivers and alcohol, Germany
An extended evaluation of driving exposure and accident data showed that presence or absence of passengers considerably influences accident risk. This especially holds true when these factors are considered in combination with alcohol use and with respect to driver age. To understand the psycho-ological and social processes at work, the factor “passenger” was introduced in a simulated driving situation. Following a repeated measurement design, 12 subjects had to drive twice under the conditions: alone, with a silent passenger, with a talking passenger, and while talking on the car phone with another person. The Würzburg driving simulator is the frontseat of a real car with the original steering wheel and all pedals. The subject can manipulate a car icon at the front computer screen with regard to both speed and direction. The computer generates a road on this screen, which subjects must follow with the car icon as quickly and as safely as they can. In addition, they must react (slow down or brake) to obstacles that suddenly appear in front of the car. These obstacles either occur randomly or are announced by stimuli within the peripheral visual field of the subjects. The simulator allows for differentiation between processes of information input (focal vs. peripheral) and those of information processing (automatic vs. controlled). Presence of passengers was found to have no influence on information input and automatic actions. However, clear negative effect occurred in driving situations requiring controlled actions. These effects were discussed with respect to young drivers and alcohol.
Alcohol and Other Drug Use in Commercial
Alcohol and Drugs, Random drug testing, commercial vehicle operators, prevention programs, United States
Quite a bit of progress has been made in the United States in reducing the use of alcohol and drugs by commercial vehicle operators in all modes of transportation over the past few years. Drug use prevention and testing programs have been required by the Federal Government since the mid to late 1980’s. More than 7,000,000 employees in safety-sensitive jobs are covered by the required programs. Random drug testing of rail workers in 1993 continued to show a reduction in the number of those testing positive for the fourth consecutive year. The positive rate was again less than 1.00 percent. This percentage is down from 6 percent in 1988. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration reported that 1993, was the fourth year in a row that aviation workers tested positive at a rate less than one percent. Because of these low rates, new regulations that became effective in 1995, will permit the random testing rates for those industries to be reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. In the trucking industry, one survey conducted by the American Trucking Associations, compiled drug testing data from its member companies for the year 1990. A positive rate from random tests was 2.5 percent. As in the other industries, marijuana was the drug of choice followed by cocaine. More recently, the Federal Highway Administration conducted a four State roadside random pilot drug and alcohol testing program. Through the end of 1993, the positive rate for drugs was 3.8 percent and for alcohol the positive rate was 0.18 percent. Earlier studies in the trucking industry had found considerably higher positive testing rates. This paper will discuss the progress that has been made and review current developments in the field and discuss new testing requirements.
Alcohol Restrictions for Novice Drivers
Drink driving, Alcohol Restrictions, Novice Drivers, graduated licensing system, enforcement, Australia
Telephone interviews of 800 novice drivers aged under 25 addressed alcohol restrictions and other components of graduated licensing systems. Fewer drivers from Western Australia (WA) and New South Wales (NSW) than other States reported an alcohol restriction as a condition of the first licence. Overall, 91% of drivers agreed with the alcohol restriction. Males and drivers with trade training were less likely to agree with the restriction. About 15% of drivers said they had sometimes drunk alcohol before driving when on their first licence. Drink driving was twice as common in WA, more common in males and in drivers with trade training. The alcohol restriction encouraged drivers to drink nonalcoholic drinks, to travel with friends or take a taxi or public transport when going out at night. Males were more likely than females to report that the restriction prevents or sometimes prevents them going out at night. About 85% of drivers reported that the penalty for drink driving was suspension or cancellation of the first licence. Almost three-quarters of drivers suggested that avoiding major roads would reduce the possibility of being detected when drink driving. The survey failed to show any strong relationship between level of enforcement and compliance.
Alcohol-Related Road Accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany - Status till 1993
Drink driving, Alcohol-Related Road Accidents, BAC-limit, Germany
In the period from 1975 to 1990 there can be seen a favourable and continuous drop of alcohol related road accidents in Germany. This relatively favourable development among alcohol-related accidents is accompanied by a slight drop in alcohol consumption: 11,8 l pure alcohol per capita was consumed in 1990-compared to 1980, a decrease of 10%. In addition, a steady increase in soft drinks was found: from 405,2 l in 1980 to 513,0 l in 1990, i. e. an increase by 26,6% [Kretschmer-Bäumel]. Since the unification in 1990 in the New Länder the road accident development in general and especially concerning alcohol related accidents impaired. The recent figures for 1992, which are still not officially proofed, show a stabilisation and slight improvement of the road accident development in the New Länder.
Analysis of Drinking Versus Arrest Locations for DWI Offenders Arrested in Bernalillo County, N.M
drink driving, DWI Offenders, BAC level, road crashes, USA
The purpose of the study was to determine whether convicted DWI offenders arrested following a crash differed in sociodemographic variables or drinking locations from those arrested for other reasons. The study population included 3,650 clients who completed a structured personal interview during the period October 1, 1989 through April 30, 1994 following referral by Bernalillo County, NM, Metropolitan Court. Twelve percent of these offenders were involved in crashes. The independent sociodemographic and arrest variables included: age; ethnicity/race; gender; employment; previous DWI arrest; BAC grouo; vehicle age; city quadrant and times of arrest; drinking location; quadrant of residence; and estimated number of miles driven. About half of the clients (51%) reported
having been drinking in a bar. Drinking locations for this subset were clustered in several discrete areas of the city, and arrest locations clustered in approximately the same areas. Among those who drove >0 miles, miles driven ranged from 0 to 19.2, with a mean of 2.6 miles (median = 1.6). Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios for driving impaired >0 miles, and for crash involvement. Analysis of variance revealed that among those who drove >0 miles, those with BACs of >=.20%, those arrested from 6 am to 12 midnight and persons drinking at bars and restaurants drove fewer miles (persons arrested in the northwest quadrant of Albuquerque and persons who resided outside the city drove more miles). The only variable that was statistically associated with having driven 0 miles was being Native American. Crash involvement was associated with higher BACs, driving vehicles <10 years old, client felt intoxicated, driving between 6 am and 12 midnight, and being arrested in the southeast and southwest quadrants of the city.
Analytical and Physiological Specificity Issues in Breath Alcohol Analysis
Analytical and Physiological Specificity, Drink-drivers , BAC level, Breath Alcohol Analysis, UK
Drink-drivers frequently allege that their breath alcohol reading was so high because some non-ethanolic chemical was in their breath at the time of the test. This paper reviews the author’s experiences and methodology in dealing with such matters in the British Courts on behalf of the Police. Conceivable sources of breath contaminants are ingestion (with food, medication or smoking), endogenous production and occupational or environmental exposure. Under British Law the prosecution have only to prove that at the time of the test the subject’s breath alcohol level (BrAC) exceeded the per se limit: it is not required to prove the actual concentration which at that time existed. The forensic scientist should therefore consider the following questions, in this order: (a) is the alleged interfering substance ‘X’ volatile? (b) does the analyser used measure substance ‘X’ at all? (c) what is the analyser’s relative response between ‘X’ and ethanol? (d) what maximum breath level of ‘X’ could the driver have had? (e) could this have elevated the reading by the difference between the per se level (or the Widmark level as calculated from the driver’s admitted consumption) and that recorded by the instrument? In most instances the case is solved well before question ‘e’ is asked. New analytical specificity requirements, such as those of OIML, while physiologically unjustified, should help reduce spurious defence claims at source.
Are the Driving-Related Skills of Clients in a Methadone Maintenance Programme Affected by Methadone?
Methadone, BAC level, alcohol and diazepam, Road safety, Australia
A study was undertaken to examine the effects of methadone, as used in the methadone maintenance program, on human performance skills which are related to those required to drive a motor vehicle with safety. The tests used for the study were chosen for their relevance to driving as well as for the distinctive properties of the opioids. The interaction between methadone and two other drugs commonly used by clients on a methadone program were also examined. These were (i) alcohol, to produce a mean blood alcohol concentration at peak of 0.064 g per 100 ml blood and (ii) a therapeutic dose of the benzodiazepine, diazepam (15 mg). The test battery proved to be sensitive to the effects of alcohol and diazepam at the doses used. There was however, no evidence for an effect of the acute dose of methadone on any of the experimental groups of clients on the methadone program. These results suggest that these clients enrolled on the methadone maintenance programme should not be considered as impaired in their ability to perform complex tasks such as driving a motor vehicle. Both alcohol and diazepam produced a significant decrement in the performance on the test battery by the control groups and the stabilized methadone clients. However, there was no
difference in the intensity of this effect between the groups. There was no evidence for an interaction between methadone and either alcohol or diazepam in the group of methadone clients stabilized on the program.
Associations Between Peer Attitudes and Behaviour, Random Breath Testing Experience and Drink Driving in a Population–Representative Sample of
Drink driving, Peer Attitudes and Behaviour, Random Breath Testing, South Australians, Australia
This study used a population-representative survey of 1.300 South Australian drinkers to examine associations between respondents’ perceptions of peer drink driving behaviour and approval of drink driving, experience of Random Breath Testing and self-reported drink driving. After controlling for age, gender, region of residence, regular drinking behaviour and drinking behaviour at locations away from home, perceptions that peers would drink drive and approve of drink driving were strongly related to the probability of the respondent also admitting to drink driving. Random Breath Testing experience was not related to drink driving. Specific causal links between peer behaviour and drink driving are unknown and require further investigation, but they may have implications for the conduct of future countermeasures.
Automating Drink/Drive Procedures to Reduce Police Time and Eliminate Errors
Automating Drink/Drive Procedures, Police Time, LIBIStm - Lion Intoxilyzer 6000 Breath-testing Input System, Lion Intoxilyzer 6000 Evidential breath-testing machine, UK
The drink/drive procedures, introduced to Great Britain in 1967, consist of a series of options selected by either the subject or the administering police officer. The intricacies of the procedure proved, in many cases, to be an obstacle course for some inexperienced Police officers, with the result that, on occasions, offenders have gone free on non-analytical technicalities, even though their alcohol levels were well above the legal limit for driving. To help solve this problem, in early 1990 Sound Techniques Limited (STL), with the assistance of the Wiltshire Police, designed a computerised system which was introduced to Swindon Police Station. The system proved to be successful, both in legal and practical terms. Between July 07, 1990 and January 20, 1995, 3726 drink/drive procedures were carried out at Swindon Police station, none of which have been contested in Court due to the computerisation of the manual pro-forma. The new system now written to the English national drink/drive forms, and known as LIBIStm - Lion Intoxilyzer 6000 Breath-testing Input System, has been designed to deal with any circumstances, however, complex, and produce a set of appropriate documents ready for signature. LIBIStm links to the new Lion Intoxilyzer 6000 Evidential breath-testing machine and exchanges all relevant information required by both systems, thus minimising data input, speeding up the procedure, and eliminating errors in procedure.
Behavioral Effects of Alcohol and Cannabis:
Can Equipotencies be Established?
Behavioral Effects, Alcohol and Cannabis, equipotential concentrations, BAC level, Germany
In an extended review of the literature dealing with low alcohol effects, Krüger et al. (1990, 1994) introduced a new classification system for the study variables. Main characteristics of the new system were the ability to distinguish between automatic and control processes in performance areas and the explicit introduction of social effects (social moods, social behaviour). For each of the categories, hazard functions were calculated that showed loss of efficiency (and diminished performance) as alcohol concentration increases. Because the same classification system was used by Berghaus (1995) in his review of marihuana effects, it is now possible to compare hazard functions for both alcohol and marihuana effects and thus determine equipotential concentrations of alcohol and marihuana for the different classes of variables.
Breath Alcohol Instrumentation: A Proposal in Commercial Taxonomy
Drink driving, BAC level, Breath Alcohol Analysis, instrument, breath sampling
Commercial descriptions of breath alcohol measuring instruments may sometimes mislead prospective purchasers as to the true capabilities of such products. In this paper we propose an international taxonomical standard against which all such devices should be judged, and their relative merits then properly assessed. To class such instruments by application offers no easy answer. For example, some fuel cell based handheld instruments are used for both roadside screening and evidential testing applications. Conversely, certain infrared devices used evidentially in some countries find only screening test applications in others. Breath sampling systems have often been the subject of much debate and dispute, especially regarding what is meant by the term ‘passive’. Confusion also exists with alcohol sensors: semiconductors and fuel cells have very different analytical capabilities, but these are not always well realised. We propose there are four criteria of taxonomy against each of which manufacturers should classify their products. These criteria are: Application; Size, Weight and Mobility; Breath Sampling Method; and Principle of Alcohol Detection. This simple approach should assist purchasers of breath alcohol instruments in traffic law enforcement and the newer but expanding industrial and public markets make correct decisions concerning the appropriate instrument for their application.
Calibration of a Portable, Automated, Posture Assessment System Using Graded Blood Alcohol Levels: Comparison With the Standardized Field Sobriety and Cognitive Tests
Drink driving, cognitive performance, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), field sobriety test (FST), portable automated posture assessment system (PAPAS)
This report describes the fourth in a series of studies assessing the impact of graded dosages of alcohol on cognitive performance readiness. This effort differs from our previous studies in several ways. First, the study used a new implementation of six cognitive performance tests that had previously been shown to be sensitive to blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Second, performance was assessed following each of two successive graded doses to a target level of 0.08% BAC. Third, we compared performance on the cognitive tests to the standardized Field Sobriety Test (FST) developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and to a portable automated posture assessment system (PAPAS) that is video based and that we are currently developing. Results showed that, by using individual baselines, combined performance measures of individual subjects permits detection of alcohol-induced performance changes at rather low BACs. All six tests of the DELTA battery and all three tests of the standard field sobriety test (FST) battery singly predicted alcohol intoxication. When combined with the standard field sobriety test (FST), the DELTA added unique variance to the prediction of alcohol level. The PAPAS test appears to correlate well with the FST and offers the obvious advantage that in addition to being portable, objective, and automatically scored, it also provides a permanent record of the event.
Continuous, Long Term Roadside Surveys to Evaluate Community Safety Programs
Drink drving, BAC level, Voluntary Breath Test, Roadside Surveys, Community Safety Programs, USA
Voluntary Breath Test Surveys of motorists between 9 pm and 2 am on alternate weekend nights are being employed to measure changes in driver behavior related to alcohol safety programs in three U.S. communities; Oceanside and Salinas, California and Florence, South Carolina. These cities are implementing programs directed at strengthening their enforcement of drunk driving laws; at promoting responsible serving practices; at reducing service to youths under age 21; and at limiting the density of liquor outlets through local zoning regulations. Initial data collected through the first two years of the program suggest that some of the programs which were initiated after a baseline year of data collection, are having an effect on intermediate measures such as perceived risk of arrest. Origin and destination studies permit the determination of where drinking occurred and allow these data to be related to participation of the outlets in responsible beverage service programs. This survey also allows the tracking of changes in the knowledge of significant elements of drunk driving legislation such as the legal BAC limit. Changes in knowledge and perceived risk can be related to on-going surveys of newspaper coverage of drunk driving issues.
Differences and Similarities in Profiles of Women Who Present for Addictions Treatment or following a DUI
Drink driving, Road crashes, DUI offenders, psychopathology, USA
An analysis was conducted of the psychological profiles of women who either sought treatment for an addiction to alcohol (and had not been previously arrested for alcohol impaired driving) and of women stopped for alcohol impaired driving. One hundred and thirteen women participated in the assessment. The assessment included inquiry into states of alcoholism, depression and acute psychopathology. Results suggest those women who present to treatment following an arrest for alcohol impaired driving have more acute psychiatric symptoms as a whole than those who present to treatment without an arrest. However, those women who presented without an arrest as a whole demonstrated more symptoms of depression. Comparison between groups will be presented along with treatment implications.
Differential Effects of Deterrence - What Can be Learned from Raising a BAC Limit
Drink driving, BAC level, Roadside survey, young drivers, road crashes, road safety, DUI offenders, Germany
With the reunification of Germany, the eastern part of Germany (the former GDR) raised the legal BAC limit from 0.0% to 0.08%. To study the effects of this unusual change in legislation, an extended roadside survey was conducted in two contiguous border states that were formerly in East and West Germany. Based on a representative random sampling plan, the survey was conducted in three waves: the first, 2 months before the legal change on January 1, 1993; the second, 5 months thereafter; and the third, in June 1994. In all, more than 21,000 drivers participated, with more than 95% agreeing to a breath test. During daytime hours, only 5% of all drivers were found to be alcohol positive (BAC > 0.0%), approximately 0.5% of whom had BAC values greater than 0.08%. For the night time drivers, 15% were found to have a BAC greater than 0.0% and 1.5% a BAC greater than 0.08%. Comparison among the different waves showed that the change in legislation was not a cue for the general driving population to alter its drink-driving behaviour. On the other hand, it became evident that young drivers and hard-core drinkers reacted markedly to the change. In East Germany, the pathological result was that the percentage of intoxicated drivers increased as the drivers’ ages decreased. In addition, the average BAC of East German drivers involved in accidents increased significantly after the reunification. Thus, “novices” in drinking and driving and “experts” in heavy drinking were identified as vulnerable subgroups which react very sensitively to perceived changes in the legal definition of DUI.
Does Low Alcohol Beer Reduce High Risk Drinking?
Alcohol Beer, Drink driving, non-alcoholic drink, high risk drivers, USA
Recently, brewers have been able to produce beer with less than 1/2 of 1% alcohol which is classified in the U.S. as a non-alcoholic drink. Currently 6% of American males report having consumed non-alcoholic beer in the last six months. This pilot study involved surveys designed to identify the extent to which non-alcoholic beers are used by high risk drivers (1,000 youth under 21 and 1,000 drivers convicted of driving while impaired). These surveys explored the context in which these beers were used and the reasons given for their use, to answer such questions as whether they appeared to support the use of designated drivers. The study also explored the extent to which these high risk drivers choose to consume beers with differing amounts of alcohol content. This is to determine whether if, current U.S. laws -- which prohibit indicating the amount of alcohol in beer on the container label -- were changed, whether this would likely result in greater alcohol consumption among these high risk groups.
Drink Driving, Daily Self-reported Drinking, and Analysis of Alcohols in Saliva Sampled Daily
Drink Driving, Daily Self-reported Drinking, Saliva testing, interactiv voice response telephone system (IVR), USA
Saliva testing for ethanol and methanol content was included in a larger study designed to assess the validity of daily self-reported alcohol consumption. A newly developed “interactiv voice response telephone system” (IVR) allowed each respondent to report daily, using the touch-tone telephone keypad, to pre-programmed questions concerning: quantity of beer, wine, liquor, and cigarettes consumed; whether respondent drove after drinking and , if so, at what self-rated level of intoxication; plus questions on stress, mood, and general health. Every night during the 4-week study, breath and saliva samples were collected from the 30 respondents of their homes. Usable saliva volumes (³.2ml) were obtained in almost all cases (97.3%). Saliva ethanol values ranged from 0 to 295.4 mg/dl, with subjects showing elevated (³50 mg/dl) readings on 1.4 study days, on average. Methanol values ranged from 0 to 1.3 mg/dl, with subjects showing elevated (³0.3 mg/dl) readings on 11.8 study days, on average. Ethanol values from saliva testing were highly correlated (r = .95) with ethanol readings from breath samples and with the IVR relf-reports of drinking (r = .72). Methanol values were moderately correlated with breath (.40) and saliva (.43) ethanol values. Subjects in the higher ethanol group (³50) showed significantly higher self-reported number of drinks consumed, intoxication in general, intoxication while driving, and problem severity than those in the lower ethanol group (0-49.99).
Drinking and Driving in France : Recent Legal Changes and Main Trends During the Years 1988-1993
Drink driving, legal changes, roadside breath data, road accident data, alcohol realted road accidents, France
An analysis of the historical “World-wide Decline in Drinking and Driving” has been presented at the Traffic Safety International Conference in the Hague, on September 1993 and the trends and patterns analysed country by country. The statistical results about drinking and driving in France over the period 1983-1991 have been summarised (Biecheler- Fretel and Jayet, 1994). What has happened since? In this paper we examine some aspects of the evolution in France on the more recent years : legal changes, roadside breath data and road accident data. We will insist on the way we establish the statistics about road alcohol related accidents. This knowledge is imperatively needed for comparing results from one country to another and over the time in a same country, as this was strongly underlined in the Hague by Herb Simpson, the ICADTS’ president (TRB,1994).
Drinking and Driving in Great Britain:
Which Way Forward?
Drink driving, drinking beer, BAC levels, median alcohol level, Great Britain
The research comprised two group discussions; 293 personal interviews with convicted male offenders in their home and follow-up depth interviews with a sub-sample of 15 offenders. The sample was skewed towards middle-aged males of social classes C2DE and also had higher proportions of unemployed respondents than would be expected in the catchment area. This profile is a reflection of the type of people who drink and drive, rather than any bias in the sample.