Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 12th_T1992_Cologne
"Alcohol and Traffic Safety. A Research carried out in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region and Eastern Veneto (Italy)
Alcohol, Traffic Safety, traffic accidents, Italy
The Authors point out the relationship between alcoholism and traffic inadvertent crimes and try to quantify the incidence of this pathology on the etiology of traffic accidents, also in the light of the recently modified art. 132 of the Italian Road Traffic Code. The data have been collected through the administration of a questionnaire (composed by 16 items), with the method of direct interview, to two categories of individuals.
"The Alcohol Traffic Courses in the Netherlands"
Drink driving, Alcohol Traffic Courses, Netherlands
"In 1979 the First Alcohol Traffic Course was given in the prison "DE Raam" in Grave. (The results of an evaluation study on this project were reported in the abstracts of T'86 in Amsterdam by R. Bovens and E. Lambregts). In 1985 a simular project started in Assen. This project dealt with offenders for drunk driving outside of the prison. This project was also evaluated. The results of both studies (Grave and Assen) were discussed in a thesis, october 1991, by R. Bovens. Because the succes of both of the projects, drunk drivers have at the moment the possibillity to follow a course in every district in the Netherlands at. There is a general evaluation study on these courses. The results will definitively be reported September 1992".
"The rehabilitation of drivers driving while intoxicated in Austria"
rehabilitation, drink driving, intoxication, Alkomat, Austria
Austria made a new effort to deminish driving under the influence by giving the
new test-equipement "Alkomat" to the police. The changement of law made the
alcomat-test equivalent to blood analysis. In addition the 0,1 %o limit for novice drivers was fixed. At the moment there is an initiative of the Austrian Road Safety Board to deminish the common alcohol limit to 0,5%o. All these measures made it necessary to reflect what the authority should do with the offender-drivers. The Austrian Road Safety Board could initiate legal instructions for training courses for drivers driving while intoxicated in common and for novice drivers especially. As a consequence the numbers of course participants increased considerable but the application of the new legal instructions must yet be improved.
A Case-Control Study of Driving While
Road safety, drink driving, Impaired Offenders, DWI, Canada
A case control approach was used to identify variables associated with driving while impaired (DWI). Data utilized for this study were obtained from interviews with individuals in a representative sample of 9,943 Canadians. Individuals convicted for DWI were matched with control subjects (i.e. no DWI convictions) by gender, age, province of residence, education, income, and recent drinking behaviour. During the matching process, 39 current abstainers were found among the DWI offenders and were treated as a separate group for statistical purposes. Three groups were studied and compared: 78 DWI cases, 78 matched controls, and 39 DWI current abstainers. Chi-square and ANOVA statistics were used to detect significant differences among these three groups for 84 variables from the following categories: (a) attitudes, knowledge and behaviour related to drinking and driving, (b) driving behaviour, (c) drinking behaviour and drug use, (d) social issues and, (e) attitudes towards different policy approaches to reducing drinking and driving. DWI cases were significantly different from control subjects for only 12 variables. A high proportion of differences found between these two groups related to attitudes regarding drinking and driving behaviour. For example, DWI cases were more likely than controls to believe that some people drive better after drinking, that it takes more alcohol to be legally impaired, and that there is an excuse for DWI. DWI cases were more likely to drink due to sadness or loneliness, and reported higher cannabis use over previous years. Little evidence was found to support the hypothesis that DWI offenders are less likely to perceive deterrents to DWI. However, evidence does support the notion that many DWI offenders do not believe that they have a drinking problem. Implications of the findings are discussed.
A COMPARISON BETWEEN ALCOHOL IN SALIVA MEASURED BY AN ENZYMATIC
PROCEDURE AND EVIDENTIAL BLOOD AND BREATH ALCOHOL VALUES
PROCEDURE, BLOOD- BREATH ALCOHOL VALUES, enforcement, UK
The main point which came out very clearly from the results is that the Q.E.D. tends to read high compared with both blood and breath alcohol levels. This is certainly desirable in any system which is likely to be retailed to the general public for self-testing purposes as it serves as a built-in safety factor. However, it is a disadvantage from a law enforcement point of view as it leads to false positives from roadside screening and the unnecessary detaining and evidential testing of some motorists. However, the linearity of the relationships is good and the Q.E.D. is probably of value for roadside screening in those cases in which motorists are unable to provide breath samples due to asthma or bronchitis.
A Validation Study of Alcohol Effects on Driver Performance, using the Arizona DPS TOPS Driving Test
Drink driving, Alcohol Effects, Driver Performance, BAC, Driving Test, USA
We hypothesized that the Arizona Department of Public Safety Truck Operator Proficiency System (TOPS) would discriminate sober driving performance from driving performance impaired by 0.04 BAC with an 88% confidence level and a 52% power level. The TOPS was a low-cost device and procedure which conveniently and reliably assessed operating personnel fitness-for-duty in less than 10 minutes, and was legally and socially acceptable
Alcohol and driving: What research on
alcoholic relapse reveals
Drinking drivers, Alcohol,driving,
Drinking drivers and alcoholics stem probably not from the same but from different populations. This may be seen from the differences in relapse-rates. The relapse-rates of drivers with several drinking and driving offences are lower than the relapse-rates of inpatient-treated alcoholics. But this may be the result of a great number of not catched drunken drivers.
Alcoholism markers in blood samples of alcoholized car drivers in view of the restitution of the driving licence
Alcoholism markers, blood samples, car drivers , driving licence, BAC, Germany
Extremely elevated GGT levels don't depend on BAC . Men with a GGT above 100 U/l are found in all alcohol classes. This proves that blood alcohol levels alone are no sufficient criteria to detect alcoholics or "driving drinkers". The part of men with elevated and high elevated GGT increases with rising BACs. But 50% of men with levels higher than 2.0 mg/g and 60% with levels between 1.6 and 2.0 mg/g have normal GGT. This is an example that a pathological relation to alcohol is not correlated with the height of the BAC. A high blood alcohol level can be just as a singular occurence as a hint for alcoholism. Characteristic for alcoholics is longlasting drinking. During this period BAC alters between low and high levels and also driving under influence of alcohol may happen just as in a time of high as of low blood alcohol concentrations. Therefore BAC is not suited to detect all "driving drinkers" among alcoholized drivers. 50% of the heavy drinkers with extreme high GGT activities remain without necessity undetected. On the other hand 50% of the alcoholized drivers with a BAC above 1.6 mg/g are signed by the criteria of the traffic authorities incorrect as "driving drinkers".
Alcoholism markers in their relation to prevention and rehabilitation
Alcoholism markers, prevention, rehabilitation, traffic under influence, Germany
Alcohol consumption and participation in traffic under influence of alcohol are worldwide problems. In Germany 2 of 3 males and 1 of 3 females drink more than 20 g alcohol daily and even 1 of 3 males and about 10% of females more than 40 g. Among these peoples are occasional and chronic drinkers. Many of them take part in traffic as car drivers also after consumption of alcoholic beverages. Alcoholics participate in road traffics to the same extent as corresponding groups of occasional drinkers but 4 times more frequent under the influence of alcohol. Therefore they are found also to a higher degree for drunk driving and involving in accidents. The group of "driving drinkers accounts for a considerably high proportion of all alcoholic delinquencies.
An Alcohol-Traffic-Program suited for the delinquent driver under influence.
Drink driving, Alcohol-Traffic-Program, driver under influence (DUI), Netherlands
In the Netherlands every year about 35.000 people are caught and prosecuted for driving under influence (DUI). Nearly all of them who are sentenced to imprisonment are destinated to prison ’de Raam’ in the south-east of the country. Yearly about 1000 drivers under influence undergo their jail-sentence in this prison. This group, only consisting of men, is by far the biggest part of the driving-under-influence- jail population in the Netherlands.
Assessment o f the Female Impaired Driver:
Implications for Treatment
Road safety, drink driving, Female Impaired Driver, alcoholism, USA
The sample of women in this study is very small making it difficult to generalize any of the results to other female samples. It did suggest that some female offenders may be suffering from additional Axis I problems,that is, in addition to alcoholism than conventionally recognized. These "additional problems" should at least be identified or evaluated and treated if requird if meaningful progress is to be made in combating recidivism with the female offender. Further, additional study must occur to determine how the female offender can better be recognized so that, meaningful interventions can be attempted.
Breath and/or blood analysis - some
drink driving, Breath- blood analysis,BAC, BrAC
An international agreement about a unified nomenclature and definition of the BrAC and BAC using standard units is highly desirable. A working group should be established at this conference which should try to draw up proposals for discussion and decision making at the 12th meeting of the International Association of Forensic Sciences to be held in August 1993 in Düsseldorf. The proposal concerning a common BrAC and BAC primarily in the European countries is desirable and all efforts should be undertaken to achieve such unity.
CAUSES AND CORRELATES OF DRINKING AND DRIVING
Drink driving, correlates, DWI offenders, Canada
In this paper studies on factors associated with drinking and driving are reviewed. Three types of studies are examined: descriptive studies; studies with comparison groups but no control for potential confounders; and studies examining the characteristics of DWI offenders, controlling for confounders. Each study type provides different types of information, useful for interventions. The first type of studies with descriptive information about DWI offenders, reveal that DWI offenders are more likely to be male, 37 to 42 years of age, and alcohol dependent. The second type of studies that utilize comparison groups of licensed drivers provides more detail about specific groups at risk for DWI. Results from this type of study show that the groups at highest risk for DWI are more likely to be male, less educated, of lower socio-economic status, and between 20 and 35 years of age. They are more likely to be alcohol dependent, binge drinkers, aggressive, impulsive, depressed, have negative attitudes towards the law and experience more stressful life events. Finally, the third type of study reveals more information about the possible causes of DWI. Studies in this group usually involve restricting samples by gender, sampling only alcoholics, or statistically controlling for confounders of age and gender. Many variables that were risk factors in the second group of studies disappeared as predictors of DWI when controlling for confounders.
Comparison of Multiple DUI Offenders Selecting Either Antabuse or 12-Step Treatment Programs
Drink driving, DUI Offenders, Antabuse,12-Step Treatment Programs, USA
Five hundred forty eight convicted multiple DUI offenders, enrolled in the drinking driver program were participants in the present study. Eighty six percent were male and 14% female. The sample was 61% White, 17% Hispanic, 13% African American, and 9% other.
Complementary empirical study on the driver fitness of methadone substitution patients
traffic safety, driver fitness, methadone substitution, Germany
At first there are only a few substituted patients left who are not taking other drugs simultaneously to the prescribed methadone. Depending on the selection criteria at least 21 subjects are from the first unfit to drive according to several reasons. It should be kept in mind that an objective screening of concomitant drug use was conducted at a maximum of three months. Probably furhter subjects had to be selected controlling longer periods. The subjects knew of the experiment, they were highly motivated. Nevertheless in many performance areas and traffic specific personality traits typical of traffic demands even the positive selection of patients yielded many significant impairments compared to the control group. Due to the findings of our investigation the expert's opinion 'disease and motor traffic' has to be confirmed. That means that in Germany at the moment methadone substituted patients admitted to the methadone programs or substituted according the guidelines on new examination and treatment methods are unfit to drive according to the statistical point of view.
Consultation on the individual route to rehabilitation - an integral task in the diagnosis of DUI offenders
Drink driving, DUI offenders, driving licenses, Germany
Until now the objective of medical and psychological examinations of DUI offenders was seen as simply checking whether the driving license can be responsibly reissued to the DUI offender at the time of the examination. Medical experts and psychologists therefore merely had the task of providing a decision making aid to the authority responsible for issuing driving licenses when considering this question.
Dependence and Misuse of Alcohol: Genetic, Medical and Psychological Criteria for the Prognosis of Future Drunken Driving
Drink driving, Alcohol, Medical, Psychological Criteria, driving offenders
Epidemiological research on alcohol as well as results from drinking experiments provide evidence that chronic alcohol misuse is usually at the forefront for driving offenders who were caught with more than 1.6 g/1, and that this alcohol misuse has led to or is leading to considerable burdens of a personal, social and/or health nature.
Detection of cannabinoids in serum of
vehicle drivers after smoking cannabis
in coffee shops
vehicle drivers, smoking cannabis, coffee shops
We had 92 persons who had smoked hashish. Analysis for other drugs were negative in all cases. 33 were called moderate, 27 heavy and 32 chronic cannabis users. The mean serum cannabinoid concentrations, the SCC, were around 80, 240 or 700 ng/mL respectively for each of these groups.
Determination of Ethanol in Breath and Estimation of Blood Alcohol Concentration with Alcolmeter S-D2
Ethanol, Blood Alcohol Concentration, Alcolmeter S-D2, Sweden
The precision and accuracy of Lion Alcolmeter S-D2 was exceptionally good for a hand-held instrument with manual sampling procedure. The training and experience of the person operating the unit plays an important role in the precision of breath sampling. As expected, accuracy and precision in-vitro was better than in tests with human subjects. The stability of the calibration was remarkably good over long periods and no adjustments were deemed necessary. The calibration of the instruments should be checked periodically but making haphazard changes is not recommended.
Different Forms of Development in Long-Term Therapy with DUI Offenders
Drink driving, DUI Offenders, Long-Term Therapy, driving licence, Germany
In Germany a driving licence can be revoked either in accordance with penal code provisions (such as drunken driving, hit-and-run offences, major road traffic offences) or else in accordance with certain provisions of our administrative law. In case of frequent offences against road traffic laws, or in the second event of drunken driving (or first with more than .16% blood alcohol content (BAC)) the offender's licence will be revoked and will not be automatically regranted. Rather, the driver will have to undergo a Medico-Psychological Examination (called MPE in this paper) of his personal aptitude to drive a car. This examination is carried out by the Medico- Psychological Institutes (MPI) of the German TÜV (a Technical Control Association). Should this MPE prove that the driver is not apted to drive a car and that further offences are to be expected, then the licence will be regranted only if the deficiencies have been eliminated. Some of the drivers having failed in the first MPE are then offered a driver improvement course, a group program carried through by the MPI.