Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 11th_T1989_Chicago
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION RELATED TO MEASURED PERFORMANCE DECREMENT
RELIABILITY, VALIDITY, BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION (BACs), PERFORMANCE DECREMENT, USA
Whole blood, serum, breath and urine are the most common samples used to assess blood alcohol concentration (BAC). To compare these samples, graded levels of alcoholic intoxication were induced in a group of paid young adult male volunteers and BACs were determined in blood, breath, serum and urine samples. The BACs were compared with each other, with results on a microcomputer based battery of cognitive tests, and with the improved sobriety test scores. The correlation coefficients for serum, breath and urine compared to blood were >0.97 and for the improved sobriety tests were > 0.60.
"TREATMENT AND EDUCATION PROGRAMS
REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF DRUNK DRIVING"
TREATMENT, EDUCATION PROGRAMS,
DRUNK DRIVING, road traffic crashes, USA
Selected treatment and educational programs are reviewed. The Central States Institute treatment program has achieved excellent results. Educational programs carefully tailored to meet the needs of specific groups are effective in reduction of drunk drivers. The DeKalb County, Georgia, (DOT) study demonstrated the value of an alcohol component within driver education. Treatment and educational programs, which are part of the systems approach for highway traffic safety, have helped to reduce the motor vehicle death rate in the United States to 2.4 deaths per 100,000,000 miles driven in 1988.
A CROSSNATIONAL COMPARISON OF DRIVERS' KNOWLEDGE, BELIEVES AND
BEHAVIOR RELATED TO DRINKING AND DRIVING.
DRIVERS' KNOWLEDGE, BELIEVES, BEHAVIOR ,DRINKING,DRIVING, DUI, Denmark
In the present paper a comparison is made between the responses to a questionnaire on factors that may be related to drinking and driving. The questionnaire was distributed to random samples of Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish drivers. The results indicated a higher incidence of DUI in Denmark and Finland than in Norway and Sweden. Different views on the combination of drinking with driving, on the severity of penalties, on the risk of accidents and differences due to drinking habits, are suggested as possible explanations of the different incidence of DUI.
A DISPOSABLE, QUANTITATIVE SALIVA ALCOHOL TEST
STATlabTM, SALIVA ALCOHOL TEST, gas chromatography, intoxication, Clinical Trials
Several studies have documented the close correlation between alcohol levels in saliva and whole blood. A new method has been developed for the rapid, quantitative determination of ethanol in saliva, the STATlabTM Saliva Alcohol Test. Clinical Trials compared saliva alcohol levels measured by STATlabTM to blood levels measured by gas chromatography and serum measured by another enzymatic assay. The correlation of saliva levels to blood and serum were r= 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. The study has shown that saliva alcohol determinations can be an accurate measure of intoxication.
A LABORATORY STUDY OF ANTIHISTAMINE AND MUSCLE RELAXANT EFFECTS ON DRIVING-RELATED SKILLS, WITH AND WITHOUT ALCOHOL
ANTIHISTAMINE, MUSCLE RELAXANT, DRIVING-SKILLS,, ALCOHOL, Methocarbamol, USA
The effects on performance of a muscle relaxant, methocarbamol, and an antihistamine, diphenhydramine, were examined in a laboratory experiment. Twenty-four men participated in six sessions, receiving each active drug treatment and placebo with and without alcohol. Alcohol alone impaired most response measures. Diphenhydramine alone impaired both sustained and concentrated attention, and the effects of diphenhydramine and alcohol in combination were additive. Methocarbamol increased tracking error in a divided attention test but did not sedate subjects or slow their performance and did not add to the impairing effects of alcohol.
A Profile Of The First Time D.U.I. Offender
Drink driving, First Time D.U.I. Offender, psychometric examinations, USA
The purpose of this paper was to provide a descriptive analysis of the FIRST time D.U.I. offender. This analysis included self report inventories, standard psychometric examinations of offenders attending safe driving classes. The sampling of the offenders was drawn inclusively from the largest provider of safe driving programs for D.U.I. offenders in Western Pennsylvania and represents all such clients served during study periods.
A REVIEW OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
traffic safety, DRINK DRIVING, road traffic accidents, injury, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, USA
Computer users who are confounded by the bewildering and seemingly endless
advances in both hardware and software may take a little solace in the thought
that leaders in the industry often feel the same way. The following paragraph
is from a speech delivered at the Software Publishers Association's spring
symposium by Jim Manzi, chief executive officer of the Lotus Development Corp:
"We are asking our customers to put up with quantum jumps in release technology
that render their prior database unteachable, their prior word processing files
incompatible, their prior investments in knowledge work, staff training and
hardware unrecoverable. And then to add insult to injury, we give them
documentation which is not more meant for the average end user then science
fiction is for scientists and ghost stories are for ghosts.
A ROADSIDE SURVEY IN THE COMPUTER AGE
Road safety, ROADSIDE SURVEY, blood alochol concentration (BAC), intoxication, USA
This report describes a roadside survey that obtains far more information on the driving public than has ever before been achieved. The survey integrates information on BAC, perceived risks of apprehension for DUI, field sobriety test performance, clinical signs of intoxication, driver record, and extensive information about drinking and driving history (obtained in follow-up interviews). Such a comprehensive survey could not likely have been conducted prior to relatively recent technologic developments. These developments have increased both the speed and accuracy with which data can be collected and processed.
A SHORT HISTORY OF SOME VICTORIAN TRAFFIC CRASH COUNTERMEASURES
TRAFFIC CRASH, COUNTERMEASURES, Public awareness, Australia
Victoria has been a leader in the introduction of traffic crash countermeasures such as the .05 legislation, compulsory wearing of crash helmets and seat belts and random breath tests. These measures were all introduced at least ten years after scientific evidence had established their validity. Public awareness of the problems was necessary with publicity essential over a long period particularly in the later school years. The best publicity is to show opinion leaders what is actually happening.
A Unique Community Based Element of ADDY (Alcohol, Drugs, Driving and You)
Community Based Element, ADDY (Alcohol, Drugs, Driving and You), law enforcement, road traffic crashes, USA
Drinking, drug use and driving is the number one killer of 16-24 year olds. Prevention efforts that have focused solely on classroom education have been futile. The most effective way to prevent teenage drinking, drug use and driving is through community-wide efforts. Partnerships between ADDY and local businesses, schools, law enforcement agencies and families can make a difference. Using ADDY's comprehensive program, these partnerships can change community norms regarding drinking, drug use and driving. Integrated and mutually reinforcing ADDY activities to promote safe driving habits will challenge teen peer norms and the number of teenager automobile crashes and deaths will be dramatically lowered.
ACUTE EFFECTS OF LORATADINE, DIPHENHYDRAMINE AND PLACEBO,
ALONE AND WITH ALCOHOL, ON SKILLS PERFORMANCE
LORATADINE, DIPHENHYDRAMINE, PLACEBO,
ALCOHOL, SKILLS PERFORMANCE, USA
In a double-blind, 2 x 3 mixed factorial-design experiment, 42 healthy men were assigned to receive either alcohol (n=21) or placebo (n=21) in combination with 10 mg loratadine, 50 mg diphenhydramine, and placebo at three separate treatment sessions. Driving-related skills, including divided attention, vigilance, and critical tracking, were measured. Diphenhydramine impaired performance and increased self-reported sedation relative to placebo or loratadine which did not differ from each other. Alcohol impaired performance; and no alcohol-drug interactions were found. Results of this acute study suggest the new antihistamine, loratadine, does not impair drivingrelated skills performance.
ADOLESCENT DRINKING AND DRIVING: BELIEFS, REFERENTS, AND PERCEIVED CONTROL
ADOLESCENT, DRINKING, , DRIVING: BELIEFS, REFERENTS, PERCEIVED CONTROL, influence of alcohol (DUI), USA
Since adolescents are a high-risk group for alcohol-related accidents and fatalities, it is important to identify their underlying beliefs regarding drinking and driving. In an effort to identify these beliefs, 36 adolescent offenders convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and 41 adolescent drivers sampled from public schools were questioned regarding: (1) their beliefs about the outcomes of driving after drinking, (2) individuals important to them with regard to this behavior, and (3) factors that would lead them to or prevent them from driving-after-drinking. Results showed that high school students identified more advantages to driving after drinking than did offenders.
ADOLESCENTS AT RISK: ALCOHOL AND DRUG-RELATED DRIVING AMONG OKLAHOMA YOUTH
ADOLESCENTS,ALCOHOL ,DRUG, OKLAHOMA YOUTH, USA
In a 1985-86 study, over half of all youth in two Oklahoma communities reported drinking/using drugs and driving, or riding with a driver who had been drinking/using. The implications of the study are, that while youth may be more aware of the risks, new initiatives will be needed beyond what has already been accomplished to further reduce youthful drinking/using drugs and driving.
ALCOCARDtm: AN AID TO SELF ASSESSMENT OF BLOOD ALCOHOL CONTENT
drink driving, BLOOD ALCOHOL CONTENT (BAC), SELF ASSESSMENT, ALCOCARDtm
Per se laws against drinking and driving unjustifiably assume that individuals can estimate their own BAC's. "Know-your-limit" cards provide a crude BAC estimation method but are limited by the number of variables they can consider. This paper describes a computer/calculator"the Alcocardtm"which, by accounting for most of the factors influencing the BAC/time curve, enables a more reliable BAC estimate to be made. This will be of use to drivers and industrial workers for making BAC estimates BEFORE they drink alcohol, in the current climate of lower permissible BAC levels. Data is presented showing Alcocard^ estimates against actual BAC measurements for drinkers in a social setting.
ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE AMONG VICTIMS OF VEHICULAR CRASHES ADMITTED TO TRAUMA CENTERS
ALCOHOL, DRUG USE VEHICULAR CRASHES, TRAUMA CENTERS, USA
During the period from January 1, 1988 to June 30, 1988 there were 517 victims of vehicular accidents admitted directly to MIEMSS, a large level I trauma center which serves as the hub of a statewide EMS system. On admission 95% of patients had a toxicology screen conducted. Using data from 3 sources (trauma registry, police reports, and toxicology reports) a confidential linked data set was created. Characteristics of accidents involving alcohol, drugs, both or neither are presented.
ALCOHOL AND DRUGS AMONG FATALLY INJURED DRIVERS OF HEAVY TRUCKS
ALCOHOL,DRUGS, FATALLY INJURED DRIVERS, HEAVY TRUCKS, USA
The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) conducted a comprehensive investigation of every fatally injured driver of a heavy truck in eight States for a one year period. Toxicological tests were conducted on each driver. One hundred and eighty two accidents, about 25 percent of such accidents nationwide, were included in the study. One Third (33 percent) of the drivers tested positive for drugs or abuse. The most prevalent drugs found were alcohol and marijuana, followed by cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, codeine and phencyclidine (PCP). Drugs interaction with fatigue and the effects of drug impairment on the cause of the accidents is discussed.
ALCOHOL AND DRUGS AMONG MVA AND NON-MVA ADMISSIONS TO A REGIONAL TRAUMA UNIT
ALCOHOL, DRUGS, TRAUMA UNIT, BAC, motor vehicle accidents (MVA), Canada
Demographic data, drug analysis including BAC were collected in a prospective study on 738 consecutive, seriously injured motor vehicle accidents (MVA) and non-MVA admissions to a regional trauma unit. This study spanned over a 3 year period. Majority of the admissions were male casualties (72%). Body fluids of almost 2/3rd of the admissions had one or more drugs in them. Alcohol was found in almost l/3rd of the population.
ALCOHOL AND FATAL ACCIDENTS IN RECREATIONAL BOATING. A TEN YEAR STUDY IN FINLAND.
ALCOHOL, FATAL ACCIDENTS, RECREATIONAL BOATING, boating accidents, FINLAND
The rate of alcohol positive operators in recreational motor boating varied from 12.6 % to 30.8 % (BAC 1.5 o/oo: from 0.4% to 2.5 %) in Southern Finland in 1979-1989. In all fatal boating accidents studied by specific investigation teams in 1986-1988 the corresponding figures for all participants were 74.7 % and 58.2 %, respectively. Although life vests were present when required by the law they were not carried. More than 90 % of drowned would probably have saved their lives by using them.
ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG INVOLVEMENT
IN SERIOUS TRAFFIC CRASHES -DEVELOPMENT OF A RESEARCH PROTOCOL
ALCOHOL,DRUG ,TRAFFIC CRASHES,RESEARCH PROTOCOL, USA
Although difficulties were encountered with project implementation, mostly on the issue of patient confidentiality, they appear to have been sufficiently overcome (at the cost of time delays) to permit a broader usage of the proposed protocol. Two project produced two results. First, methodology has been proposed and tested to permit researchers to more closely examine the roles of alcohol and drugs in non-fatal traffic crashes and the accuracy of police reporting of such involvement. Second, the results of the pilot implementation indicate that drug involvement is possibly greater than previously suggested and that police under-report alcohol involvement and substantially under-report drug involvement in such crashes.
ALCOHOL AND SERIOUS ROAD TRAUMA: DEMOGRAPHIC AND INJURY CHARACTERISTICS
ALCOHOL, ROAD TRAUMA, DEMOGRAPHIC ,INJURY CHARACTERISTICS, BAC
Demographic, BAC and injury data were available for 561 consecutive seriously injured MVA admissions to a regional trauma unit over a 2 year period. The majority of patients were young male drivers. Injury measures indicated serious injury with mean Injury Severity Score 25.7, mortality rate of 11.0% and mean length of hospital stay 25.6 days. Of the 90% of patients BAC tested almost 1/3 were BAC positive, of whom 80.8% were estimated to be over 80 mg/100 ml at the time of crash.