Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 10th_T1986_ Amsterdam
Random Breath Testing in Victoria
Road safety, DRINKING DRIVING, Random Breath Testing (RBT), Australia
RBT was introduced in Victoria in 1976. Since that time the amount of RBT activity has gradually increased with some periods of intensified RBT being carried out. The aim of RBT operations has not been to detect large numbers of drinking drivers but to deter drivers from driving after drinking. Intensified RBT has been shown to be effective in reducing night time, casualty accidents and current levels of normal RBT activity are comparable with levels used in earlier campaigns. There has been good public acceptance of RBT with an increase in approval following the introduction of RBT in a number of Australian States.
"DRUNKENNESS" FROM BENZODIAZEPINES
Traffic safety, DRINK DRIVING, DRUNKENNESS, BENZODIAZEPINES, Germany
In the federal Republic of Germany it is a punishable offence for a person having taken an excess of alcoholic drink or other intoxication drugs to drive a road vehicle § 316 StGB ( criminalm code) . Among intoxicating drugs are counted all substances which react on the cetral nervous system.If there is a pronounced negative effect of one of the latter it is called "drunkenness without alcohol, the limit of fitness to drive being far exceeded.
A FIELD TRIAL WITH BREATH ANALYSIS EQUIPMENT UNDER OPERATIONAL POLICE
Road safety, drink driving,BREATH ANALYSIS, POLICE
Scientific research has answered questions on the reliability of breath analyse equipment as far as it concerns the results of infrared analyses and the related aspects. Research on the operational police aspects of breath analyse equipment however is far more specific. This is due to the relation between the effectiveness of these instruments under operational conditions, the national legislation on drinking and driving and on the competence of the police .
A NEW TESTING DEVICE USING THE 9.5 pm ETHANOL ABSORPTION
Road safety,Drink driving,ETHANOL ABSORPTION, Germany
In this stusy we have found that the most efficient way to avoid the influence of organic ompounds in evidential breath testing is the use of the 9.5 pm ethanol absorption band.
A REVIEW OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE APPROVED EVIDENTIAL BREATH ALCOHOL TESTING INSTRUMENTS INTRODUCED INTO ENGLAND, SCOTLAND AND WALES ON 6th MAY 1983
Road safety, drink driving, EVIDENTIAL BREATH ALCOHOL TESTING INSTRUMENTS, Roadside Screening, UK
In 1974 the government set up a working party under the chairmanship of Mr Frank Blennerhassett QC to review the problem of drinking and driving. Amongst a number of recommendations was that the government should consider new instrumentation to improve Roadside Screening for alcohol, and evaluate the concept of determining a driver’s body alcohol content from breath samples.
A SHORT DRINKING/DRIVING PREVENTION CAMPAIGN AND ITS ACTUAL EFFECTS ON THE
ALCOHOL-INDUCED ACCIDENT RATE: A TARGET POPULATION STUDY
Road safety, DRINK DRIVING, PREVENTION CAMPAIGN, ALCOHOL-INDUCED ACCIDENT, Canada
From a prevention point of view, we learned from these data that a well -design fear-appeal drinking/driving service ad "may" have a significant impact on a target population including individuals from both sexe s , even if the message is used for a relatively short period of time. The quality of the message is crucial, but the conditioning environment is determinant. Any social climate encouraging "prodigality" plays against any prevention campaign.
A SIMULATOR STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND MARIHUANA ON DRIVING BEHAVIOR
TRAFFIC SAFETY, drink driving, road traffic accidents, SIMULATOR, MARIHUANA, DRIVING BEHAVIOR, USA
In general we found that alcohol caused an increase in accidents, an
increase in the driver’s vehicle control variability, and an increase in reaction
time. These results were consistent throughout the experimental tasks, and
accounted for the majority of observed driver impairment. The alcohol results
come as no surprise, as they are consistent with the results found in the
extensive literature concerning alcohol effects on human performance.
AFTER 50 YEARS WITH A PER SE LAW
THE DRINKING AND DRIVING PROBLEM IN NORWAY
PER SE LAW, Drink driving, DUI, BAC, Norway
With an incidence of DUI of only 0,25 % which is far lower than in most other countries, the struggle against drinking and driving may seem to have been quite successful in Norway. However, as pointed out earlier, the drinking and driving problem is primarily reflected in the number of alcohol- related accidents. In Norway about 30 % of all fatally injured drivers have a BAC exceeding 0,5 o/oo. This percentage is only slightly lower than that found in other countries (3). This shows that drinking and driving is a serious problem in Norway too. Two groups of drinking drivers are of particular concern. Of all fatally injured drivers about 23 % have a BAC exceeding 1,5 o/oo and about 20 % are young drinking drivers.
ALCOHOL AND CANNABIS AMONG FATALLY -INJURED MOTORCYCLISTS
Drink driving, drugs, road traffic accidents, CANNABIS, FATALLY -INJURED, MOTORCYCLISTS, Canada
Results of the present study indicate that the highest frequency of drug use — alcohol and cannabis — was found among motorcycle driver fatalities. What accounts for differences among vehicle operators is indeterminate. Some factors, however, are likely age-related. Future studies should examine interrelationships among age, alcohol, other age-related factors (such as skill development) and personal and social characteristics of persons who drive after using alcohol and cannabis.
ALCOHOL AND DRUG USAGE BY NEW SOUTH WALES DRIVERS.
Road safety, drink driving,DRUG, breath-test, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), NEW SOUTH WALES, Australia
A large population of drivers, breath-tested for alcohol was studied with respect to their stated drug usage and to the reason for coming to police notice. The study conducted in N.S.W., covered the period May 1, 1980 to September 30, 1981. At the commencement of the study, a roadside screening breath test ('Alcotest', Drager, W.Germany ) was administered to a driver at the discretion of the police officer. On Ouly 15, 1980 mandatory breath testing was introduced for all drivers commiting a traffic offence, involved in a crash or who were driving in an aberrant manner. A further change was introduced on December 15, 1980 when the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit was lowered from 80 mg% to 50 m g % .
ALCOHOL AND DRUGS IN FINLAND:- DRIVERS KILLED IN TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS
Drink driving, drugs, road traffic accidents,BAC, Finland
In Uusimaa, the most populated province of Finland, 375 road traffic accidents caused 400 deaths during 1982-1985. In the drivers of motor vehicles the prevalence of illegal BAC (>_0.50 promil (w/w), and of drugs that impair driving was 28.9 percent and 2.2 percent, respectively.
ALCOHOL AND OTHER OFFENCES : THE "BASIC DRIVING BEHAVIOUR" OF USERS PRONE TO
INFRINGE DRINKING AND DRIVING LAWS
Road safety,DRUNK DRIVING, DRIVING BEHAVIOUR, INFRINGE DRINKING, DRIVING LAWS, France
The survey was conducted by O.N.S.E.R. in the spring of 1981 on a sample of 1032 French motorists and it enabled us to depict their normal driving practices. The data helped to establish the existence of various forms of unlawful driving and to arrive at a rational explanation of each one. This resulted in our evolving the notion of "Basic Driving Behaviour".
ALCOHOL AS A POTENTIATING FACTOR IN MOTOR VEHICLE CRASH INJURY
ALCOHOL, road traffic accidents,POTENTIATING FACTOR,MOTOR VEHICLE CRASH, INJURY, USA
The findings from motor vehicle crashes are consistent with the controlled laboratory studies but not with the clinical studies . However, the clinical studies failed to consider the degree of impact experienced. If the alcohol - involved patient experienced a given level of injury as a result of a less severe crash, this information was lost .
ALCOHOL TREATMENT PROGRAM VERSUS LICENSE SUSPENSION FOR DRUNKEN DRIVERS: THE FOUR-YEAR TRAFFIC SAFETY IMPACT
DRINK driving, road traffic accidents, ALCOHOL TREATMENT PROGRAM, LICENSE SUSPENSION,DRUNKEN DRIVERS, USA
License action is a more effective traffic safety countermeasure for repeat
DUI offenders than participation in a 12-month alcohol program. License actions result in substantially lower 4-year rates of nonalcoholrelated accidents and convictions than alcohol program participation. License actions and alcohol program participation have roughly equivalent long-term effects on alcohol-related accidents and convictions. The effect of license action is probably attributable to reduced driving exposure and to more cautious driving behavior during the period without a valid license. The greater the duration of a license action, the larger the long-term effects tend to be.
ALCOHOL-RELATED ACCIDENT STATISTICS IN ONTARIO BETWEEN 1957 AND 1984 - IS THE
PROBLEM INCREASING OR DECREASING?
ALCOHOL, road traffic accidents, morbidity, mortality, Canada
the strong correlations between alcohol consumption and the population-based and ratio measures of alcohol - related crashes are c onsistent with a large body o f information relating alcohol consumption to various measures of alcohol- related morbidity and mortality. However, as correlations calculated in this manner may pose statistical problems, this issue will be explored in future work.
AN HISTORICAL SURVEY OF ALCOHOL, DRUGS AND TRAFFIC SAFETY-- RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS
TRAFFIC SAFETY, alcohol, drugs, drink driving, traffic accidents, USA
To decrease the role of alcohol in traffic accidents, new ideas are required. We seem to have nearly exhausted the effectiveness of those that exist. As we develop new ideas we must be sure that they are inspired, not simply clusters of fading impressions. I will conclude by quoting Francis Bacon, who said, "he who does not seek new remedies can expect new evils, for time is the greatest innovator."
AN OVERVIEW OF THE RANDOM BREATH TESTING TRIAL IN NEW SOUTH WALES
Road safety, DRINKING DRIVING, RANDOM BREATH TESTING, road traffic crashes, Australia
RBT in New South Wales has significantly reduced the frequency of fatal traffic crashes. If the pre-RBT trend had continued throughout the RBT trial then it is estimated that there would have been an additional 726 fatal crashes during those three years. Also, the results obtained in this analysis coincided with those which would be expected from a reduction in drink-driving. Further evidence of the success of the trial was the high and increasing public support for RBT. The extensive media publicity and the high level of Police activity is considered to have reinforced the perceived seriousness of drink-driving.
ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF POLICE ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES ON DRINKING AND DRIVING
TRAFFIC SAFETY, alcohol, drink driving, road traffic accidents, ENFORCEMENT, BAC, Netherlands
The function of police enforcement is to create a probability of detection which will deter drivers from drinking. In practice the effects of enforcement campaigns have been limited to the short term. This paper analyses the elements of enforcement and suggests how to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of these elements. Despite the complex relation between probability of detection and drinking and driving, this probability is used as the most important criterion for effectiveness. Detection of drinking and driving is the end result of successive selections at four stages of enforcement: presence of police on the road, contact with individual drivers, screening for BAC and evidential testing of BAC.
TRAFFIC SAFETY, drink driving, traffic accident, ANALYTICAL METHODS, breath-alcohol analysis
This report concerns papers presented at T86 workshops devoted to analytical
methods for alcohol and drugs. The main focus was on principles and practical
application of breath-alcohol analysis.
ATTITUDES, OPINIONS AND DRINKING-DRIVING PATTERNS OF YOUNG DRIVERS
Road safety, ATTITUDES, OPINIONS,DRINKING-DRIVING, YOUNG DRIVERS, Netherlands
Obviously, the young adult population studied is a prime target for drinking-driving countermeasures. The incidence of drinking and drinking and driving is high. An added aggravating factor is that the drinking and driving pattern is centered around the weekends. In par t icular the younger drivers, either with or without licence, are both inexperienced in drinking and inexperienced in driving, and it is not surprising that a high incidence of accidents are reported in the survey.