Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 09th_T1983_Puerto Rico
"EATING THE PLASTIC": THE MINNESOTA 2-TRACK SYSTEM FOR DRINKING DRIVER CONTROL
TRACK SYSTEM, DRINKING DRIVER CONTROL, alcohol concentration, deterrence, USA
To ensure that a driver's license is revoked promptly when a test results shows an alcohol concentration of 0.10 g % or more, regardless of court.outcome or plea bargaining on the criminal charge, Minnesota adopted an administrative revocation law in 1976, adding to the conventional implied consent revocation for refusing to take the test. This law was unique to Minnestoa until 1981 when 2 other jurisdictions passed similar laws. In 1982, 3 more, and in 1983, 13 more states established similar prompt revocation on test result systems. The author describes the Minnesota law and its operation and discusses the legal and constitutional issues. Effect of the law on apprehension rates, swiftness of sanction, deterrence, and perceived risk are analyzed. A 2-track DWI control system employing both prompt administrative driver license sanctions on one track and conventional court action on a related but not directly connected parallel criminal track enhances deterrence through more certain, swift penalty, perceived by drivers as severe.
A COMPARISON OF ENZYMATIC PROCEDURES
FOR BLOOD ETHANOL MEASUREMENT
,BLOOD ETHANOL MEASUREMENT, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), UK
A comparison was made between the performance of 3 commercial kits using the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymatic method of ethanol analysis with 2 non-commercial ADH procedures and with 1 procedure using alcohol oxidase. Three of the methods studied also incorporated the formation of colored formazans with absorption maxima in the visible part of the spectrum. A high level of sensitivity, reproducibility, and linearity were achieved in most cases, but the alcohol oxidase procedure gave the least satisfactory results in every way.
A CONTROLLED EVALUATION OF THE DWI VISUAL DETECTION GUIDE TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR POLICE OFFICERS
DWI VISUAL DETECTION, GUIDE TRAINING PROGRAMS,POLICE OFFICERS, Canada
The need and justification for specialized training of police officers in DWI detection is evident. Harris, Howlett, and Ridgeway recently developed an innovative DWI Detection Guide consisting of 23 driving cues capable of discriminating DWI from DWS. This study evaluated the DWI Detection Guide Training program versus informal class discussion on DWI and found no pre- versus post-arrest rate differences between the 2 programs but an overall main effect, with a significant post-DWI program increase in arrest rates. These results suggest that any program that focuses attention on DWI enforcement will increase arrest rates and that the Detection Guide is as effective with police officers as general discussion on DWI enforcement in increasing arrest rates.
A METHOD TO DETERMINE FUSEL ALCOHOLS IN BLOOD SAMPLES
FUSEL ALCOHOLS,BLOOD SAMPLES, blood analyses, alcohol drinks, Germany
Fusel alcohols belong to the most important congeners of alcohol drinks. Their concentrations range between 0.01% and 1.00% of the ethanol level. Determinations of fusel alcohols in blood samples of drivers require a highly sensitive analytical method, since long-chain alcohols are partly bound to blood proteins and/or conjugated to glucuronic acid. We recommend ultrasonic disintegration, ultrafiltration, and incubation of these samples with beta-glucuronidase. In this paper, also, we discuss forensic problems which can be solved by specific blood analyses.
A NEW METHOD FOR ASSURING ALVEOLAR-EQUILIBRATED BREATH ALCOHOL SAMPLES
ALVEOLAR-EQUILIBRATED, BREATH ALCOHOL SAMPLES, alcohol analysis, Germany
Reproducibility is one of the most important figures of merit in breath alcohol analysis. A number of papers have already stressed the important role of the liquid layers covering the conducting airways of the respiratory system. During inhalation these surfaces are deprived of alcohol. This can only be resubstituted by equilibrated alveolar air during exhalation. This paper describes the application of a mathematical lung model on the problem of dynamic gas exchange in the respiratory system. As a result, quantitative relationships for assuring alveolar-equilibrated samples and their use in analytical instruments are demonstrated.
A PRACTICAL COMPREHENSIVE DRUG SCREEN FOR DRIVERS
public awareness, DRUG SCREENING, impaired DRIVERS, USA
The apparent increase in public awareness and concern about the role of the drug or chemically- impaired driver in incidents involving vehicular accidents and deaths has resulted in proliferation of programs design to address this problem. Legislation introduced or proposed imposes a burden on the toxicology laboratories which cannot be adequately managed using conventional analytical techniques of the last 10 years.
A STUDY ON THE VALIDITY OF SELF-REPORTS: FOLLOW-UP RESEARCH ON THE PUERTO RICAN TREATED DRUG USER
Drug use, SELF-REPORTS, drug-use pattern, RESEARCH, PUERTO RICAN
This study addresses the issue of validity of self-reported data within the authoritarian setting of drug use. It demonstrates that the methodological difficulties present throughout the research effort have significant implications on the assessment of the validity of the findings. More specifically, the study describes and documents the particular methodological issues encountered by the researcher during the follow-up experience; it presents self-reported data regarding demographic, drug-use pattern, legal and perception of labelling variables; and finally, it compares specific areas of self-reported data with unobtrusive data, in an attempt to validate these items on the self-reports.
A SUMMARY OF THE USE OF BONE MARROW AS A SPECIMEN FOR POSTMORTEM ALCOHOL DETERMINATIONS
BONE MARROW, POSTMORTEM, ALCOHOL DETERMINATIONS, blood alcohol levels, USA
Our studies have shown that a linear relationship exists between postmortem blood and bone marrow alcohol levels in rabbits and human cadavers, by which one can predict blood alcohol levels from corresponding bone marrow levels. The feasibility of using bone marrow for ethanol determinations after storage was studied in rabbits that were dosed, sacrificed, and stored in refrigerated and warm environments for as long as 28 days. Specimens from refrigerated animals proved to be suitable in estimating a blood ethanol level at death, whereas those stored at warm temperatures proved unreliable due to increases and decreases in ethanol levels.
ACETONE EXPIRATION AND BREATH-ALCOHOL TESTING
ACETONE EXPIRATION,BREATH-ALCOHOL TESTING, risk groups,diabetic patients, Germany
Acetone may interfere with breath-alcohol testing using instruments measuring in the near infrared. But in practice considerable breath-acetone values are unlikely to occur even in risk groups of diabetic patients.
ALCOHOL ABUSE CUTS ACROSS ALL MODES OF TRANSPORTATION
ALCOHOL ABUSE, accidents, TRANSPORTATION, USA
Until recently the involvement of alcohol in highway accidents was under reported. Demographic research has shown that alcohol- involvement plays a large role than previously believed in the causation of traffic fatalities. The same under-reporting of alcohol- involvement exists in rail road and boating accidents. Only in aviation accidents is an accurate picture of alcohol involvement available.
ALCOHOL AND ITS RELATION TO TRAFFIC DEATHS AMONG YOUNG PERSONS
ALCOHOL, road traffic accidents, traffic deaths, young persons, BAC,single-vehicle fatal accidents, USA
This research highlights a need for increased BAC testing of drivers in fatal accidents. With the existing, highly incomplete data, it is impossible to state the percentage of fatal accidents involving alcohol. Also, it is impossible to document precisely the age-sex distribution of alcohol-involved drivers in fatal crashes. However, the data presented here indicate that alcohol is a major contributing factor to fatal crashes and that the reported percentage of fatal accidents involving alcohol (about 43% of all drivers in single-vehicle fatal accidents and about 23% of all drivers in multi-vehicle fatal accidents in 1981) represents the minimum percentage of drivers involved in alcohol-related fatal accidents.
ALCOHOL INVOLVEMENT IN UNITED STATES TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS: WHERE IT IS CHANGING
Road safety, drink driving, ALCOHOL, road traffic accidents , UNITED STATES
The proportion of traffic accidents involving alcohol in the United States (U.S.) was estimated using 2 national accident data files. Restraint usage for alcohol-involved drivers was shown and alcohol involvement for various driver age groups was analyzed. Alcohol involvement in fatal accidents was traced from 1980 through 1983. Assessments were made concerning traffic fatality decreases and alcohol involvement reductions during those years.
ALCOHOL, AGE, AND RISK OF ROAD ACCIDENT INVOLVEMENT
ALCOHOL, AGE, RISK, ROAD ACCIDENT, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), risk-curves, Canada
Research has demonstrated that the relative risk of involvement in road accidents increases with increasing blood alcohol concentration (BAC), especially for BAC's in excess of 80 mg%. Several factors, however, have been shown to influence this relationship. This paper examines one of these factors: age; specifically, the relationship between BAC and the relative risk of fatal accident involvement for different age groups of drivers. Results confirm past findings that people in different age groups have quantitatively different BAC-risk curves. In particular, the relative risk for teen-aged drivers was found to be greater than older drivers, at all BAC's.
ALCOHOL, DRUGS, AND ROAD ACCIDENTS:
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY IN NORTH-EAST ITALY
Road safety, drink driving, ALCOHOL, road traffic accidents, DRUGS,EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY, ITALY
Epidemiologic research is being done in Northeast Italy in order to examine the relationship between drug use and traffic accidents. The present study comprises close to 2,000 cases. It consists of data on the drivers' blood and urine analysis subsequent to the accident and of a detailed questionnaire. Chemical analyses have been done by EMIT, GLC, and HPLC. The results confirm that drugs in combination with alcohol represent a factor in determining traffic accidents and constitute the basis for an efficacious research and countermeasures philosophy in Italy.
ALCOHOL, PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS OF ABUSE, AND TRAFFIC SAFETY IN THE UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS
traffic safety, ALCOHOL, crashes,fatalities, PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS, UNITED STATES
The Government of the U.S. Virgin Islands has undertaken measures to combat alcohol and drug abuse in the territory and has formulated a long-range plan for traffic safety and system improvement. This presentation focuses on the following: 1) the abuse of alcoholic beverages and psychotropic drugs in the U.S. Virgin Islands; 2) the causes for the abuse of alcoholic beverages and psychotropic drugs; 3) the non-medical program for the alcohol abuser and the chemical-dependent person; 4) the alcohol and psychotropic drug involvement in crashes and fatalities; 5) the indigenous drugs of abuse; 6) the polydrug abusers; 7) traffic safety; and 8) traffic accident prevention.
ALCOHOL-RELATED PREVENTION PROGRAMS FOR ADOLESCENTS
ALCOHOL,PREVENTION PROGRAMS, ADOLESCENTS, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol (NIAAA), USA
In this paper we will explore and raise issues regarding alcohol use among youth, of import in the planning of alcohol abuse prevention and intervention programs using a multidisciplinary approach. We will describe findings of recent research supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol (NIAAA) having significance for researchers, programmers, practitioners, and policymakers. Based on previous and current NIAAA prevention and intervention activities, we will discuss the components that should be incorporated into successful prevention/intervention programs, and will draw implications for targeting efforts to the adolescent population in general and to those youth at extreme high risk, pertinent to reducing a major health hazard facing teens: drinking and driving.
ALCOHOLISM AND TRAFFIC SAFETY: THE SOCIAL FUNCTION OF THE COURT
ALCOHOLISM,TRAFFIC SAFETY, SOCIAL FUNCTION, COURT, Puerto Rico, accidents
Data from Puerto Rico indicate that 50% of the population over 15 years of age consume alcohol and that 58% of the drivers and 53% of the pedestrians killed in traffic accidents in 1981 had blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.10% (the legal definition of intoxication, according to Puerto Rican law) at the time of death. We recognize, however, that only 1 per 1,000 drunken drivers is detained by the legal authorities. Recent federal policy has been to require the individual states to establish stronger penalties for those convicted of driving while intoxicated.
However, the number of cases is too great in Puerto Rico to impose prison sentences upon all convicted of this violation. I recommend, instead, that social services be required of those convicted and that the authorities be given more and better resources so that a larger number of the drunken drivers be detained and prevented from causing accidents.
AN EVALUATION OF SHORT TERM TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR PERSONS DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL 1978-1981
ALCOHOL, alcoholism, treatment program, UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL, USA
Two independent treatment groups, participants in the puerto Rico short term treatment program (for alcoholism) were evaluated according to a quasi- experimental design by which the post-treatment measurements were contrasted with those prevailing in the total population at the time of admission to treatment.
AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO SCREENING "DRIVING WHILE INTOXICATED" OFFENDERS
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic crashes, intoxication, Offender Screening Program, USA
A unique and innovative "Driving While Intoxicated" Offender Screening Program was developed by the National Council on Alcoholism-Albuquerque and implemented in conjunction with the Metropolitan Court. This community-based program is nonprofit, independent, self-sufficient (funded solely by offender fees) and involves 2-stage screening which combines probabilistic prediction of recidivism with clinical assessment of alcohol problems. Offenders found to require treatment are objectively referred to qualifying agencies. Preliminary evaluation results demonstrate the accuracy of the prediction and assessment process and exhibit the effect of treatment of offenders.
ANALYTICAL GROUP THERAPY FOR DRINKING DRIVERS (ADLERIAN LIFE STYLE ANALYSIS)
DRINKING DRIVERS, recidivists,DWI offences,ANALYTICAL GROUP THERAPY, alcohol, Germany
Since 1977, 3 different German rehabilitation programs for drinking and driving recidivists are subjects of a long-term evaluation study: 1 each based on group dynamics, behavior modification, and an analytic group therapy. The last consists of 8-10 group meetings conducted by a psychologist. The total length of a course is 26 hours. Participants are drivers with 2 DWI offences or 1 offence showing a BAC of 0.2% or greater, with slight or no signs of impairment. The psychological approach of the program is derived from Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology. The outline of. every group member's life-style worked out in order to determine the role of alcohol within the framework of his life-style techniques. Strong efforts are made to convince the alternative strategies instead of following the "alcohol-detour." The program also contains 10 information units.