Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 08th_T1980_Stockholm
"METPOL" An automated system for the analysis of blood alcohol levels
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,METPOL, blood alcohol levels, England
"METPOL" has been successful in reducing the amount of skilled staff time given up to a routine repetitive task. At the same time it has made the task both simpler and pleasanter to perform.
A BREATH ALCOHOL SAMPLE SIMULATOR FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF BREATH ALCOHOL TESTERS
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, BREATH ALCOHOL SAMPLE SIMULATOR, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION,BREATH ALCOHOL TESTERS, USA
Breath tester sampling efficiency is determined by the effectiveness of the sampling design in accommodating the physiological parameters of temperature, concentration-time profile, volume delivered, and delivery rate. The values recommended below are based on human subject data obtained by using simulated breath testers. The standard samples are intended to test sampling efficiency and not to displace precision/accuracy tests already in use.
A CRITICAL VIEW OF COUNTERMEASURE
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, accident tolls, COUNTERMEASURE, Canada
Countries with demerit point systems, for instance, offer different opportunities from countries which do not. This is why no universally relevant listing of specific recommendations can be provided. Nonetheless, in the opinion of this author, the perspective delineated contains the potential for creating a social climate in which effective road safety management (including countermeasure implementation and evaluation) can be developed, maintained and ultimately lead to a major reduction in accident tolls. As compared to the current situation, the result may well be less breath testing, but hopefully a little more breathtaking.
A METHOD FOR THE DETERMINING OF BREATH ALCOHOL WITH MULTIFRACT (GASCHROMATOGRAPHY)
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, BREATH ALCOHOL,GASCHROMATOGRAPHY, Germany
The results show that the gas sampling method which we have developed produces sufficiently precise indications and due to its columns it can unlike the
'Alcytron* specifically differentiate ethyl alcohol from other organic solvents. Both devices accomplished up to an alcohol concentration of I'/OO similar relative
variation coefficients which means that both methods are similarly referring to accuracy and precision.
A New Breath Alcohol Meter
breath ethanol, alcohol meter, gas chromatography, Japan
The alcohol meter has practical merits to determine breath ethanol. It is small, usable anywhere, little error determination, and can record the breath ethanol concentration determined and can preserve the record. In principle, tobacco, thinners and breath of a diabetic may affect the determination by alcohol meter, but in reality such effects can be excluded by making the subject rinse his throat. As the determination values by alcohol meter and gas chromatography were compared with the reading of the alcohol meter as y and that of the gas chromatograph as x, an equation of; y = 0.942x + 0.001 (r = 0.996, p << 0.001) was obtained. Thus it may be said that the alcohol meter is practically and functionally excellent.
A NEW DEVICE FOR AUTOMATION OF THE ALCOHOL ANALYSIS PERFORMED BY
MEANS OF THE ADH-METHOD
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,AUTOMATION, ALCOHOL ANALYSIS,
, ADH-METHOD, Netherlands
The results of the new automated method being compared with the results of the old semi-automated method. When analysing small series with attention to every detail, only very small differences in the results of the two methods are obtained and the reproducibility of the new apparatus is even better. The results under practical conditions are slightly less. The results of the new method are somewhat higher than those obtained with the old one. In our opinion the reasons of this descrepancy are to be sought in the functioning of apparatus A. Future research is directed to overcome these difficulties.
A New Technique For The Storage And Analysis of Breath Alcohol Samples
Lion Breath Alcohol Collection System (BACS),Breath Alcohol Samples, gas chromatography, Widmark titration, UK
The Lion Breath Alcohol Collection System (BACS) is a simple to use, inexpensive system which can be used independently in the field or in conjunction with evidential breath instruments at the police station. Its accuracy renders it suitable for forensic use, laboratory analysis being carried out using the Lion Alcolmeter AE-D1, by gas chromatography or using a Widmark titration.
A PLAN FOR INFLUENCING TEENAGE DRINKING DRIVERS
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, TEENAGE DRINKING DRIVERS, USA
If young people are going to drink, and most of them apparently do, teach them to do so sensibly. Use the licensing procedure as a control to help young people pass successfully through that hazardous period in which their learning to drink and learning to drive unfortunately overlap. In fact, the potential educational and screening uses of the licensing system for all drivers has never really been fully examined in any comprehensive, consistent approach. Most adult citizens routinely pass through the driver's license station on some periodic basis. Not to use an already in-place system may be the costliest error we have ever made in our long-standing attempts to control the unnecessary tragic toll that occurs daily on our streets and highways.
A REVIEW OF BREATH TESTING IN NORTHERN IRELAND 1968 - 1979
Road safety, drink driving, Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), BREATH TESTING, legislation, IRELAND
Breath tests have been used continuously in Northern Ireland since October 1968 apart from a brief period of suspension in 1971-1972. It was anticipated that there would be initial teething troubles but these have surprisingly been absent. This breath testing procedure has operated very effectively for the last 10 years and has been accepted by the general public. This in my view is due to the procedures which have been used by the Royal Ulster Constabulary to enforce the legislation.
ADVANCES IN INFRARED TECHNOLOGY FOR BREATH ALCOHOL TESTING WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE INTOXIMETER MODEL 3000
INFRARED TECHNOLOGY, BREATH ALCOHOL TESTING, INTOXIMETER MODEL 3000, breath alcohol testing, drink driving, USA
By combining the simplicity and speed of an infrared absorption technique that provides specificity for ethanol with the automation and data treatment of modern computer technology, the IntoximeteR Model 3000 is the most accurate and complete breath alcohol testing instrument available today.
ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE, ROAD BEHAVIOUR AND PERSONALITY
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, blood alcohol limit, DRUG USE, ROAD BEHAVIOUR,PERSONALITY, Australia
The car is one of the most potent and potentially most lethal weapons in the human armory, one which is accessible to almost every one; a driving licence is by no means an unattainable goal. It is the duty of the community, therefore, to ensure that attitudes, appropriate to the handling of dangerous objects, are developed also towards the handling of motorised vehicles. Quite obviously, at the proper time, one needs to learn the mechanics of driving; quite obviously one needs to ensure that the vehicle and the environment, in which it is being used, are as safe as possible; quite obviously there will always be offenders and they will need to be punished, but first and foremost, it is the person behind the wheel who must accept full responsibility for traffic safety. Learning about sensible use of alcohol and drugs, developing an awareness of self and a positive attitude to others, can only be achieved through education whcih starts at an early age and continues and is reinforced throughout one's life span.
ALCOHOL AND DRUGS IN DRIVING ABILITY
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,ALCOHOL,DRUGS, DRIVING ABILITY, radioimmunological analysis (RIA), Germany
Following a research program (sponsored by BASt and ADAC) regarding individuals suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs, representative sampling of blood specimens (453 from 3492) have been analysed for the presence of drugs. For this purpose radioimmunological analysis (RIA) have been employed for the detection of barbiturates, benzodiazepines, butyrophenones, opiates and methaqualone. Positive results were found in 17.9 % of the cases examined. In 7.6 % of these cases significant concentrations (in the pharmacologically active range) ware noted. In addition to RIA, gaschromatographic and masspectrometric analysis were performed for further detection of drugs, which can not be identified by RIA. From those cases completed to date (n = 90) the data appear to confirm that the percentage of the traffic participants who are under the combined influence of alcohol and/or drugs is within the range of 15 - 20 %.
ALCOHOL AND FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS; A REVIEW OF 500 CASES FROM
NORTH & WEST LONDON 1970 - 79
Road safety, drink driving, Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents, 'drinking-driver, England
Established patterns of alcohol involvement are evident, i.e. of victims dying within twelve hours of accident, 42% of drivers , 22% of motor cycle riders had BACs over the legal limit of 80mg%. Similarly, 20% of male, and 2% of female pedestrians could be judged impaired, i.e. they had BACs ^120mg%. The 'drinking-driver' problem is almost entirely related to males, within the ages 16-30.
ALCOHOL AND ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS WITH SEVERE INJURY TO THE DRIVER
Road safety, drink driving, Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents, INJURY, Sweden
The results of the pilot study points towards a causal connection between high risk frequencies and high alcohol levels in the blood. I t was not established in the pilot study if there is a con nection between a high alcohol content in the blood and the severity of the injury .
ALCOHOL AND THE RISK OF ACCIDENT INVOLVEMENT
Road safety, drink driving, Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents, roadside breath tests, Australia
An unobtrusive method of conducting roadside breath tests without the assistance of the police has been shown to be practicable. The results of a case/control study, in which this method was used to collect BAC readings from the control drivers, show that the association between a driver's BAC and the risk of accident
involvement in Adelaide is similar to that reported by Borkenstein et al (1964) in Grand Rapids.
ALCOHOL CONCENTRATIONS IN BREATH AND VENOUS BLOOD AND ALCOHOL EFFECTS
ALCOHOL CONCENTRATIONS, breath alcohol analysis, blood alcohol level, lcoholic impairment, Germany
In breath alcohol analysis the kind of the employed exhaled breath is very important for a correct measurement. As previously shown, a defined expiratory and the end-expiratory air lead to variation in the results for the alcohol levels. After oral ingestion the breath alcohol concentration rises more quickly than the cubital vein blood alcohol level. It does not describe the overshooting alcoholic impairment in the invasion phase. Besides the brain's richer specific blood flow, as compared with the upper extremities, the rise in the rate of the alcohol concentration plays a role with respect to the greater impairment during the resorption period.
ALCOHOL INVOLVEMENT IN TRAFFIC DEATHS INVESTI GATED BY SPECIAL BOARDS OF INQUIRY IN FINLAND
Road safety, drink driving, Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), road traffic accidents, TRAFFIC DEATHS, pedestrians,bicyclists, Finland
In the blood samples of the 135 pedestrians and 74 bicyclists , alcohol was present in 44 .4 % and 14.9 %, respectively . In 27. 4 % of the pedestrian deaths , alcohol was the decisive factor, in 11.1 % an indispensable caus e , and in 2.2 % an additional factor. In 8.1 % of the bicyclist deaths , alcohol was the decisive factor , in 6.8 % an indispensable caus e , and in 5.4 % an additional factor.
ALCOHOL SAFETY PROGRAMS IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, ALCOHOL SAFETY PROGRAMS, GERMANY
The experiences gained from the Alcohol Safety Action Projects cannot be applied to conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany as a whole since considerable differences exist between the USA and Germany with respect to jurisdiction, driving habits, drinking patterns, traffic surveillance and other characteristics. However, it is our hope that we succeeded in making the corresponding
adjustments to apply the most successful U.S. American approaches to German conditions and to avoid the most important mistakes. However, we can only be certain on this point when the evaluation is completed.
ALCOHOL, DRUGS AND ROAD'ACCIDENTS IN NORTHEAST ITALY PRELIMINARY REPORT
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, drugs, ITALY
In Italy, this situation necessitates further exploration of the problem related to drugs and driving, and our research project aims at satisfying this requirement. Four ways of approach have been employed in order to define the role of aloahol in highway accidents and these are relevant also for the elucidation of the role of other drugs.
ALCOHOL, MARIHUANA AND SKILLS PERFORMANCE
ALCOHOL, MARIHUANA, SKILLS PERFORMANCE, road crashes, USA
The results of this study strongly indicate that drivers under the combined influence of alcohol and marihuana have an increased likelihood of initiating a crash. For the marjority of tasks carried out by subjects in the study, the combined use of alcohol and marihuana produced additional decrements in performance. Since all of the tasks (with the possible exception of that involving short-term memory) involved skills which are components of driving performance, clearly the
conclusion is compelled that the combined use of alcohol and marihuana
produces increased risks for the user and for the other members of the traffic population.