Conference Proceedings and Papers

Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.

 

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Search results for: 07th_T1977_Melbourne
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07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
A Controlled Study of the Role of AIcohol in Fatal Adult Pedestrian Accidents
Author/s
A. B. Clayton, A. C. Booth and P. E. McCarthy
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Traffic Safety, drink driving, alcohol, Pedestrian Accidents, BACs, injuries, UK
Description / summary
Alcohol has a major role in fatal pedestrian accidents. At BACs above 120mg/ 100ml, the relative risk of accident-involvement increases rapidly. Impaired pedestrians (BAC>120mg/100ml) comprise 27% of the male fatalities and 7% of the female fatalities who die within 12 hours of the accident. Amongst males, impairment appears to be over-represented amongst the young and middle-aged, semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers, and those who are divorced or separated. For injured pedestrians with high BACs, treatment of their drinking problems would appear to be as important as treatment of their physical injuries.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
A National Program to Reduce Alcohol Related Traffic Accidents
Author/s
L. R. H. Drew
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents, Alcohol, Australia
Description / summary
New initiatives to reduce alcohol related traffic accidents could come from Governments. However, at this time of financial stringency, this is extremely unlikely. It could only happen if there was a strong, vocal, community demand. Alternatively, a driving force could be created if those who are vitally concerned with this issue organised themselves together for a regular exchange of information, to develop proposals for programs, to enlist community support, and to press governments for reform.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
A New Generation of Breath Testing Instruments and their Response to Interfering Substances Found in Breath
Author/s
M. R. Forrester
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Traffic safety, drink driving, Breath Testing Instruments, ethyl alcohol, USA
Description / summary
Significant levels of acetone do occur in a portion of the population. These subjects are ambulatory in spite of contrary testimony given by so-called experts in the past. Non-specific instruments reporting acetone as ethyl alcohol overlook this circumstance. Extreme levels found in the acedotic diabetic indicate a potentially fatal condition needing medical attention, not incarceration. Moderate levels of acetone such as those found in strict dieting subjects could cause or contribute to false arrests due to false readings.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
A New Method for the Rapid Analysis of Ethanol in Breath, Blood, Urine and Saliva Using the AIcolmeter Evidential Instrument
Author/s
T. P. Jones, A. W. Jones and P. M. Williams
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Rapid Analysis,Ethanol, Breath, Blood, Urine AIcolmeter Evidential Instrument, UK
Description / summary
Throughout this study the breath and the headspace readings have all been compared to the actual weight per volume analysis of alcohol in blood determined by gas chromatograph since the experimental error of this method is very low. The variability in the breath/blood data can, therefore, be largely regarded as a combination of both the breath instrument error and the variability in the breath/blood partition ratio.Similarly, for the headspace analysis the variability again is a combination o f the instrument error and the blood/air partition ratio which, from previous vitro studies, has been shown to be ± 4%.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
A Psychological Study of Drivers Concern for Road Safety and Their Opinions of Various Public Policy Measures Against Drinking and Driving
Author/s
Gerald J. S. Wilde
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving,traffic accidents, prevention, Public Policy, Canada
Description / summary
Several analyses were conducted in the framework of this study in order to determine what popular ideologies exist with respect to accident prevention. These analyses took the form of studying the patterns of interrelationships between the believed effectiveness ratings of the forty countermeasures. These ratings were subjected to factor analysis, and the favourability ratings were processed in a similar manner. Subsequently, a conjoint analysis of the effectiveness and favourability ratings was conducted which ascertained agreement between the effectiveness factors and the favourability factors
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
A Review of Australian Research and Action on Alcohol and Traffic Safety
Author/s
Basil S. Hetzel
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Traffic safety, drink driving,traffic accidents, Australia
Description / summary
In 1974-75 Australians spent $2039 million on alcohol, about one-third of the amount spent on food! This is the equivalent of $151.39 spent by every Australian or $225.87 for each person over the age of 18 years. These facts indicate that until Australian society is able to handle alcohol more responsibly, the future of road safety in this country must be viewed with great concern.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
A Study of Attitudes of Specialists Towards Currently Proposed Countermeasures for the Alleviation of the Drinking-Driving Problem
Author/s
S. Israelstanr and S. Lambert
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Traffic safety, drink driving,traffic accidents, Countermeasures, Attitudes, Canada
Description / summary
Overall, we are given the impression that it is less important to reduce morbidity and mortality than it is to preserve individual freedom. Results also show a great belief in man’s rationality and considerable faith in education. While there is no denying that knowledge and understanding of the drinking-driving problem by young and old alike are important, there is no reason to believe that this knowledge correlates positively with self-discipline. The respondents too must feel this, since they viewed those steps applying to self-restraint in driving after drinking as less effective than the steps concerning education.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
Acute Adaptation of Human Cognitive and Motor Functions to Ethanol
Author/s
H. M. Franksifb G. A. Starmer and R. K. C. Teo
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Road safety,Drink driving, road traffic accidents, blood ethanol concentrations, Adaptation, Human Cognitive,Motor Functions,Australia
Description / summary
The research reported in this paper has illustrated greater ethanol effects on motor than cognitive functions. As cognitive functions are less likely to be impaired than motor, and recovery from the effects of ethanol earlier, drink-drivers are likely to have a false sense o f security and place themselves at risk of crash involvement. Our results have supported the findings of Mellanby. Performance by subjects with equivalent blood ethanol concentrations was affected differently according to whether the level was rising or falling. This raises several interesting legal and practical issues.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
AIcohol and Accidental Submersion from Watercraft and Surrounds
Author/s
Vemon D. Plueckhahn
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Aicohol, Accidental Submersion, Watercraft, alcoholic intoxication, Australia
Description / summary
The mechanism of virtual immediate death on immersion is undoubtedly varied and occurs also in young persons who have never imbibed alcohol. It is probable that the common cause is a reflex, sudden cardiac arrest resulting from a sudden rush o f water into the nose or upper air-passages. In addition there is seldom evidence of water entering the lungs or stomach of these deceased and death appears to have been instantaneous and accompanied by reflex spasm of the glottis. Other factors as cold water, a ‘state of tension’, or sudden fright may undoubtedly play their physiological part on some occasions. It does appear however that whatever the precipitating mechanism, the prior consumption of alcohol does play more than a coincidental part in many such deaths, particularly in the older age group. The editors of Gradwohl’s Legal Medicine (1976)7 very easily state that the mechanism ‘is usually some element which might be called a “state of hypersensitivity”, not uncommonly alcoholic intoxication’.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
AIcohol Consumption of Social Drinkers in an Experimental Situation
Author/s
Satanand Sharma and Herbert Moskowitz
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Road safety,Drink driving, road traffic accidents, AIcohol Consumption,Social Drinkers, Experimental Situation
Description / summary
This study suggests that it is questionable to assume that only heavy drinkers achieve high BALs. The light drinker can drink to high blood alcohol levels in situations where intake is over several hours, as is characteristic o f most drinking situations in non-laboratory settings. He apparently does not experience immediate physiological effects which require him to terminate drinking.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
Alcohol and Transport Safety Analysis of the Options
Author/s
J. C. Lane
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Tranport safety, drink driving,traffic accidents, Alcohol, driver-road system, Australia
Description / summary
What I have been doing is to state — or restate — some assumptions on which a model of the impaired driver-road system need to be based. I have also commented very briefly on the three main classes of countermeasures that are suggested by the model. It is not my intention to advocate any specific countermeasure or disparage any. However, I would stress the need to obtain numerical data so that parameters of the model can be estimated.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
Alcohol Consumption and Road Usage in the Republic of South Africa
Author/s
S. H. Pie terse
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Drink Driving, Alcohol Consumption,Road Usage, breath-analysis legislation,South Africa
Description / summary
Law enforcement officers encounter various problems in obtaining convictions for DWI offences, because of the cumbersome blood testing procedures, insufficient case preparation and the resulting miscarriage of justice when acquittals occur because of some technical loophole. The advantages of breath analysis are well-known and outweigh the few limitations associated with this procedure. The need for breath-analysis legislation has been recognised and its implications are currently being examined.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
An Australian Management Program for Drinking Drivers: Driving Simulator, Controlled Drinking, Video-tape and Educational Self-image Confrontation
Author/s
Gerald Milner
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents, Australian Management Program, Drinking Drivers, Driving Simulator, Controlled Drinking, Educational Self-image Confrontation
Description / summary
A special program has been devised for drinking drivers and there are virtually no restrictions on who is admitted to this program, except of course that they should have been convicted of a drink driving charge or presented with a drinking problem and be regular vehicle drivers. The program is based on Robert Burns’ call: ‘Oh would some power the gift to gi’e us, to see ourselves as others see us’. For you see the main trouble with the intoxicated state is simply the fact of intoxication which affects judgment, mood, perception, foresight, as well as co-ordination, psycho-motor skills, efficiency, risk-taking and so on.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
An Education Program for Impaired Drivers? Some Points to Ponder
Author/s
L. M. Blumenthal
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents, Education Program, Impaired Drivers, Canada
Description / summary
It often became impossible to have all of the necessary resource personnel present and the moderator found himself acting as judge, crown prosecutor, and policeman. The solution, hopefully of value to others facing this problem, was to set up an intensive one-day course with all personnel being present. Because, in Alberta, drivers’ licences are suspended for a minimum of six months, two or three courses a year in a particular vicinity would suffice.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
An Evaluation of a Coin-operated Breath Self Tester
Author/s
W. R. Picton
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Traffic safety, drink driving,traffic accidents, Coin-operated, Breath Self Tester, Alco-Meter, BAC, Canada
Description / summary
The combination of pressure and time used in the Alco-Meter appears to be sufficient to obtain adequate breath samples in most cases. Deliberate attempts to obtain false low results by just meeting the minimum breath sample required to produce a result were seldom successful. As a result of the testing it was concluded that with a minimal amount of user co-operation, the Alco-Meter is capable of accurately measuring the BAC
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
An Evaluation of the Alcohol Level Evaluation Roadside Tester (ALERT) Under Laboratory and Field Conditions
Author/s
W. R. Picton
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Traffic safety, drink driving,traffic accidents, Roadside Tester (ALERT) ,Field Conditions, BAC
Description / summary
Additional training aimed at the detection of impaired drivers together with sufficient instruction to allow the peace officer to calculate the amount of liquor that he personally must consume in order to reach a BAC of 100 mg% is recommended in order to increase awareness of impaired driving symptoms. A discussion of the magnitude of local accident experience and the police role in traffic accident prevention can also generate enthusiasm for impaired driving countermeasures. Such enthusiasm at the Alert operator level is essential.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
An International Unit for the BAC— with Educational Advantages
Author/s
Trevor C. Beard
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Traffic safety, drink driving,traffic accidents, BAC, Educational Advantages, Australia
Description / summary
The conversion to molar units which is gradually taking place in science, technology and medicine will assist public education and law enforcement when applied to blood alcohol. It will be in strict accordance with an international reform of weights and measures to which member nations of the International Metric Convention are already committed, and its early implementation is desirable.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
An International View of Legislation and Its Effect
Author/s
J. D. J. Havard
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving,road traffic accidents,Legislation, DWI offenders, UK
Description / summary
In terms of reduction of mortality and morbidity legislation planned by road safety authorities to prevent road accidents has had disappointing results. It is suggested that an important reason for lack of success is the failure to carry out adequate research, field trials and evaluation such as is carried out prior to the introduction of legislation to control other causes of mortality and morbidity. Preparatory steps should include improvement of the quality of the data about patterns of road accident mortality and morbidity; studies of the distribution of alcohol in the driving population and of the attitudes or drivers; and investigation of the characteristics of offenders.
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
An Overview of the Problem of Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety
Author/s
Robert F. Borkenstein
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Traffic Safety, drink driving, drugs, Traffic Law Enforcement, impaired drivers, USA
Description / summary
Police action against drunken driving remains at a deplorably low level. Its effectiveness is both confirmed and denied. According to OECD figures from its report ‘Research on Traffic Law Enforcement’, 1974, about 10% of police resources are used for traffic law enforcement. Our own research indicates that the rate o f enforcement of the laws against alcoholically impaired drivers averages two cases per traffic police officer per year. Is it any wonder that there is little deterrence?
Category
07th_T1977_Melbourne
Paper Title
An Overview of the Problem of Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety
Author/s
Robert F. Borkenstein
Year Published
1977
Keywords
Traffic Safety, drink driving, drugs, Traffic Law Enforcement, impaired drivers, USA
Description / summary
Police action against drunken driving remains at a deplorably low level. Its effectiveness is both confirmed and denied. According to OECD figures from its report ‘Research on Traffic Law Enforcement’, 1974, about 10% of police resources are used for traffic law enforcement. Our own research indicates that the rate o f enforcement of the laws against alcoholically impaired drivers averages two cases per traffic police officer per year. Is it any wonder that there is little deterrence?