Conference Proceedings and Papers

Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.

 

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Search results for: 06th_T1974_Toronto
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06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
A Comparison between the Gas Chromatograph Intoximeter and a Direct Blood Analysis
Author/s
Martin H. Breen,Kenneth F. Siler, and Dan S. Pearce.
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Gas Chromatograph Intoximeter, Blood Analysis, USA
Description / summary
The GCI demonstrated a high level of accuracy: both experimental accuracy, where
the GCI results were compared to their respective BAL; and predictive accuracy, where the BAL was estimated by the GCI results. Results also indicated that the 1/2100 ratio is too low, as indicated by the GCI coefficient (1.017) being greater than 1.000.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
A Comparison between the Gas Chromatograph Intoximeter and a Direct Blood Analysis
Author/s
Martin H. Breen,Kenneth F. Siler, and Dan S. Pearce.
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Gas Chromatograph Intoximeter, Blood Analysis, USA
Description / summary
The GCI demonstrated a high level of accuracy: both experimental accuracy, where
the GCI results were compared to their respective BAL; and predictive accuracy, where the BAL was estimated by the GCI results. Results also indicated that the 1/2100 ratio is too low, as indicated by the GCI coefficient (1.017) being greater than 1.000.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
A Comparison of Changes in Knowledge and Attitude Between Problem Drinkers and Non-Problem Drinkers Following a Reeducation Program
Author/s
James L. Malfetti and Kenneth J. Simon
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, Knowledge, ,Attitude,Problem Drinkers, Non-Problem Drinkers,Reeducation Program, USA
Description / summary
Although no problem drinkers seemed to show greater OS improvement than potential problem and definite problem drinkers combined, no relation was found between drinking problem classification (defined by Al) and knowledge and attitude change. The findings clearly suggest that those DWIs suffering more serious and pervasive problems with alcohol gain significantly in knowledge about DWI and to the same extent as other DWIs. In so far as such change is deemed important, the Westchester County reeduction program is not lost upon them. In addition, the findings suggest that while DWIs with a potential or definite drinking problem improve significantly in attitude, the change is less than that shown for non-problem drinkers. Perhaps the former group should be encouraged to become involved in follow-up experiences planned to produce additional attitudinal and behavioral change.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
A Comparison of Changes in Knowledge and Attitude Between Problem Drinkers and Non-Problem Drinkers Following a Reeducation Program
Author/s
James L. Malfetti and Kenneth J. Simon
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, Knowledge, ,Attitude,Problem Drinkers, Non-Problem Drinkers,Reeducation Program, USA
Description / summary
Although no problem drinkers seemed to show greater OS improvement than potential problem and definite problem drinkers combined, no relation was found between drinking problem classification (defined by Al) and knowledge and attitude change. The findings clearly suggest that those DWIs suffering more serious and pervasive problems with alcohol gain significantly in knowledge about DWI and to the same extent as other DWIs. In so far as such change is deemed important, the Westchester County reeduction program is not lost upon them. In addition, the findings suggest that while DWIs with a potential or definite drinking problem improve significantly in attitude, the change is less than that shown for non-problem drinkers. Perhaps the former group should be encouraged to become involved in follow-up experiences planned to produce additional attitudinal and behavioral change.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
A Historical and Experimental Study of the Breath/Blood Alcohol Ratio
Author/s
A. W. Jones1, B. M. Wright and T. P. Jones
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Breath/Blood Alcohol Ratio, blood alcohol concentration,intoxication
Description / summary
Although breath alcohol analysis has been used for the determination of blood alcohol concentration for more than 40 years, the relationship between the breath and blood alcohol concentrations is still uncertain. For this reason, while the blood alcohol level is now almost universally accepted as a reliable indicator of intoxication, breath is still frequently regarded as only suitable for a screening test. The obvious advantages in convenience and acceptability of breath testing have nevertheless led some countries to adopt it as a substantive test, and most other countries would do so if only the relationship between the breath and blood levels were more clearly established and shown to be sufficiently constant for practical purposes.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
A Historical and Experimental Study of the Breath/Blood Alcohol Ratio
Author/s
A. W. Jones1, B. M. Wright and T. P. Jones
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Breath/Blood Alcohol Ratio, blood alcohol concentration,intoxication
Description / summary
Although breath alcohol analysis has been used for the determination of blood alcohol concentration for more than 40 years, the relationship between the breath and blood alcohol concentrations is still uncertain. For this reason, while the blood alcohol level is now almost universally accepted as a reliable indicator of intoxication, breath is still frequently regarded as only suitable for a screening test. The obvious advantages in convenience and acceptability of breath testing have nevertheless led some countries to adopt it as a substantive test, and most other countries would do so if only the relationship between the breath and blood levels were more clearly established and shown to be sufficiently constant for practical purposes.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
A Simple Method for the Determination of the Smoking of Marijuana
Author/s
Lawrence C. Kier
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Smoking, Marijuana, law enforcement agencies,
Description / summary
A simple, rapid, inexpensive method for the determination of the smoking of
marijuana is presented. The method of collection is simple enough for collection in the field by law enforcement agencies and the method of analysis is simple enough to be carried out in most laboratories. The method will detect the smoking of marijuana up until at least 6 hours after smoking, depending on the strength of the marijuana and the technique of smoking.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
A Simple Method for the Determination of the Smoking of Marijuana
Author/s
Lawrence C. Kier
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Smoking, Marijuana, law enforcement agencies,
Description / summary
A simple, rapid, inexpensive method for the determination of the smoking of
marijuana is presented. The method of collection is simple enough for collection in the field by law enforcement agencies and the method of analysis is simple enough to be carried out in most laboratories. The method will detect the smoking of marijuana up until at least 6 hours after smoking, depending on the strength of the marijuana and the technique of smoking.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
A System for Breath Alcohol Analysis, and a System to Collect and Preserve Breath Evidence of Blood Intoxicants
Author/s
Wallace E. V anN ote and Naresh C. Jain
Year Published
1974
Keywords
road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, Alcohol,Breath Alcohol Analysis, Blood Intoxicants, USA
Description / summary
The Co-Sweep Preservial collection and preservation systems have been developed for sampling and evidence retention of breath volatile intoxicants in drunken driver cases. This system provides for both local and field sampling, in conjunction with health analyzers. It provides a low cost and easy to operate method of sampling and retaining samples. Finally, it has the added feature that any laboratory can analyze the liquid sample using gas chromatographic, enzymatic or spectrophotometric techniques.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
A System for Breath Alcohol Analysis, and a System to Collect and Preserve Breath Evidence of Blood Intoxicants
Author/s
Wallace E. V anN ote and Naresh C. Jain
Year Published
1974
Keywords
road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, Alcohol,Breath Alcohol Analysis, Blood Intoxicants, USA
Description / summary
The Co-Sweep Preservial collection and preservation systems have been developed for sampling and evidence retention of breath volatile intoxicants in drunken driver cases. This system provides for both local and field sampling, in conjunction with health analyzers. It provides a low cost and easy to operate method of sampling and retaining samples. Finally, it has the added feature that any laboratory can analyze the liquid sample using gas chromatographic, enzymatic or spectrophotometric techniques.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
Alcohol Abuse in First Offenders Arrested for Driving While Intoxicated
Author/s
Eric W. Fine, Pascal Scoles and Michael J. Mulligan
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,First Offenders, Intoxication,USA
Description / summary
Effective management of this population must involve a multi-modality treatment program, flexible enough to adjust treatment strategies as determined by individual client needs and judicial demands. In view of the apparent lack of insight into the severity of their drinking problems and the almost non-existent motivation to obtain treatment, the indications are that some form of compulsory program will need to be instituted for these offenders. The nature of this particular alcohol-impaired population makes it extremely unlikely that they would respond well to the rather restricted approach adopted by most existing alcoholism treatment programs, or to self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous. On the basis of clinical experience with many of these individuals, it is evident that total abstention from alcohol should be only one of several options available, and an excellent opportunity exists here for approaches directed to more responsible use of alcohol, especially so far as drinking and driving are concerned.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
Alcohol Abuse in First Offenders Arrested for Driving While Intoxicated
Author/s
Eric W. Fine, Pascal Scoles and Michael J. Mulligan
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,First Offenders, Intoxication,USA
Description / summary
Effective management of this population must involve a multi-modality treatment program, flexible enough to adjust treatment strategies as determined by individual client needs and judicial demands. In view of the apparent lack of insight into the severity of their drinking problems and the almost non-existent motivation to obtain treatment, the indications are that some form of compulsory program will need to be instituted for these offenders. The nature of this particular alcohol-impaired population makes it extremely unlikely that they would respond well to the rather restricted approach adopted by most existing alcoholism treatment programs, or to self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous. On the basis of clinical experience with many of these individuals, it is evident that total abstention from alcohol should be only one of several options available, and an excellent opportunity exists here for approaches directed to more responsible use of alcohol, especially so far as drinking and driving are concerned.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
Alcohol and Road Accidents in Great Britain
Author/s
Barbara E. Sabey and P. J. Codling
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, legislation, injuries, Great Britain
Description / summary
Since the introduction of legislation imposing a legal limit of alcohol in the blood of drivers of motor vehicles in 1967, it is estimated that the total savings in casualties over the period of seven years approaches 200 ,000 injured persons, including over 5,000 fatalities. The initial savings of 42,500 casualties in the first year has now dwindled to an estimated 6,000 casualties in the current year. Past experience has shown that the potential for savings in casualties is at least 1 0 per cent of the national casualty toll. Further efforts must be directed towards achieving that goal, and one of the first steps already announced is the setting up of a committee of inquiry to study the operation of the law on drinking and driving and to make recommendations.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
Alcohol Concentration in Urine and Its Forensic Evidence
Author/s
Peter Zink and Gunther Reinhard
Year Published
1974
Keywords
road safety, drink driving, Alcohol Concentration, Forensic Evidence, Germany
Description / summary
The phase of the blood alcohol curve can be better determined, if a blood
sample and a urine sample taken at the same time, are compared. In spite of this, it is still not reliable proof or evidence of the blood alcohol phase. The difficulties in the evaluation of urine samples in forensic cases are that the amount of alcohol consumed, the time factor of drinking, the last miction, the residual
urine in the bladder and the diuresis are unknown.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
Alcohol Concentration in Urine and Its Forensic Evidence
Author/s
Peter Zink and Gunther Reinhard
Year Published
1974
Keywords
road safety, drink driving, Alcohol Concentration, Forensic Evidence, Germany
Description / summary
The phase of the blood alcohol curve can be better determined, if a blood
sample and a urine sample taken at the same time, are compared. In spite of this, it is still not reliable proof or evidence of the blood alcohol phase. The difficulties in the evaluation of urine samples in forensic cases are that the amount of alcohol consumed, the time factor of drinking, the last miction, the residual
urine in the bladder and the diuresis are unknown.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
Alcohol, Drugs and Carbon Monoxide in Traffic Fatalities in Puerto Rico
Author/s
Sidney K aye
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,Drugs,Carbon Monoxide ,Traffic Fatalities,Puerto Rico
Description / summary
In Puerto Rico with a population of about 2.8 million, there are 681,598 registered motor vehicles, 709,996 licensed drivers, and less than 10,000 miles of highway. On these highways there were 85,980 traffic accidents in 1973 that resulted in 30,000
personal injuries and 577 deaths (19, 20). These 577 traffic fatalities represented an increase of 4.5% over the 1972 record of 552.3 Alcohol continues to play a major role in these traffic deaths.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
Alcohol, Drugs, and Driving Behaviour in Switzerland
Author/s
P. K ielholz
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,Drugs,Driving Behaviour, Switzerland
Description / summary
The main danger of the psychotropic drugs is not their own effect but their
intensifying effect on alcohol. That doubling the therapeutic dose of a tranquillizer
does not cause a significant increase of severe driving faults is shown by our investigations. However, severe faults are clearly intensified by the combined effect of alcohol and drugs.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
Alcohol, Drugs, and Driving Behaviour in Switzerland
Author/s
P. K ielholz
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,Drugs,Driving Behaviour, Switzerland
Description / summary
The main danger of the psychotropic drugs is not their own effect but their
intensifying effect on alcohol. That doubling the therapeutic dose of a tranquillizer
does not cause a significant increase of severe driving faults is shown by our investigations. However, severe faults are clearly intensified by the combined effect of alcohol and drugs.
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
Alcohol, Drugs, and Driving: Relative Priorities for Basic and Applied Research
Author/s
M. W. Perrine
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, drugs, Basic , Applied, Research, USA
Description / summary
Any consideration of research priorities is constrained by the very extent of knowledge at the moment. In turn, any attempt to determine the extent of present knowledge in the field is necessarily constrained by the state of the art at the moment. In October 1972, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration sponsored the Vermont Symposium on Alcohol, Drugs, and Driving which was designed to address two general questions: “What do we know now?” and “What should we know?”
Category
06th_T1974_Toronto
Paper Title
Alcohol, Drugs, and Driving: Relative Priorities for Basic and Applied Research
Author/s
M. W. Perrine
Year Published
1974
Keywords
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, drugs, Basic , Applied, Research, USA
Description / summary
Any consideration of research priorities is constrained by the very extent of knowledge at the moment. In turn, any attempt to determine the extent of present knowledge in the field is necessarily constrained by the state of the art at the moment. In October 1972, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration sponsored the Vermont Symposium on Alcohol, Drugs, and Driving which was designed to address two general questions: “What do we know now?” and “What should we know?”