Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
To access, search the database via the form on the navigations area (at left). All fields do not need to be completed to return a result.
Search results for: 04th_1965_Bloomington
A DEPRESSION-AGGRESSION SYNDROME RELATED TO ACCIDENTS CAUSED BY ALCOHOLIC DRIVERS
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic crashes, DEPRESSION-AGGRESSION SYNDROME, USA
Each subject in the alcoholic and control groups was interviewed some weeks after admission by one of us to obtain a history of all moving traffic violation convictions and of traffic accidents caused by the subject which resulted in an injury or at least $100 damage. We also sought to determine if the subject had been “drinking” prior to any of these events. “Drinking” was defined as the consumption of beverage alcohol equivalent to four ounces or more of pure alcohol within six hours of the time of the accident or violation.
A FIELD STUDY OF THE USE OF “ALCOTEST”
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,FIELD STUDY, ALCOTEST, blood-alcohol determinations, alcohol ,non-alcohol,casualties
When comparing 1,148 cases of suspected drunken driving examined by the police by the Alcotest method and by blood-alcohol determinations, the Alcotest gave erroneous results in a minimum of 20-23 per cent of the cases. The Alcotest samples showed a distribution over the day with peaks in the evening and a t night, which differed completely from the distribution of traffic density and hospitalized traffic accidents, both alcohol and non-alcohol involved casualties.
A GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF BLOOD-ALCOHOL
LEVELS IN TWO GROUPS OF DRINKING DRIVERS
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS, BLOOD-ALCOHOL LEVELS, USA
We conducted this survey several years ago, selecting Grand Rapids, Michigan, as our site because it is a rather normal community with a normal social ethnic situation and because of its excellent Police Department and police record system. In Grand Rapids every accident is investigated. In so many communities only fatal or personal injury or serious property damage accidents are investigated, but in Grand Rapids every accident must be reported. During a three year period prior to our planning this project, there were 27,000 such accidents. We obtained the cards, the IBM cards, from Grand Rapids and selected 2,000 of the 27,000 , using a table of random numbers. These became the sites for the collection of our control group.
A STUDY OF ATTITUDE CHANGES ABOUT ALCOHOL THROUGH EDUCATION
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, ATTITUDE CHANGES,ALCOHOL EDUCATION, society problem, USA
The purpose of this paper is to report on an experiment wherein college students who either are, or will be, teaching in elementary and secondary schools have been exposed to a program of alcohol education. Attitudes toward the total alcohol/society problem were measured before and after the course of instruction.
ADVANCE PREVENTION OF DRUNKEN DRIVING
Traffic safety,Drink driving, road traffic accidents, PREVENTION, Finland
The most important factors in advance prevention of drunken driving are education, elucidation of the suitability of applicants for driving license, and traffic control exercised by police.
ALCOHOL AND GENERAL AVIATION ACCIDENTS
ALCOHOL, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, toxicological examinations, USA
This paper represents a study of 158 general aviation fatal accidents in which toxicological examinations were performed on the pilots. These 158 cases were part of the total of 477 general aviation fatal accidents which killed 899 people in the year 1963. Thus the study covers over one third of the general aviation fatal accidents which occurred in 1963. In this paper the term general aviation means civil private, business, corporate, and commercial flying, excluding all air carrier operations, both scheduled and nonscheduled, and excluding military aviation.
ALCOHOL EFFECT ON LATENCY OF CALORIC NYSTAGMUS
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, LATENCY, CALORIC NYSTAGMUS, under alcohol influence, USA
The role of alcohol is well known in the literature on the vestibular mechanism. Although many of the phenomena associated with the effect of alcohol on this system and related ones have been examined, some have been investigated only cursorily or not at all. Among these is latency of nystagmus as affected by alcohol, particularly that arising from caloric stimulation, despite the thorough work of Aschan and colleagues on related matters. Several studies have been concerned with duration of caloric nystagmus under alcohol influence, e.g., Aschan, Pfaltz, and Rauschke, but the writer has been able to discover only a few instances in which nystagmic response latency under alcohol influence has been examined as a direct experimental question.
AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF LEGISLATION
ON ALCOHOL AND TRAFFIC SAFETY
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,INTERNATIONAL SURVEY,LEGISLATION, driving performance
The problem of legislating in connection with alcohol and traffic must be considered from two points of view: first, the interests of the community—tha t accidents caused by alcohol should be prevented from happening or be reduced to an acceptable minimum; secondly, the interests of the individual— that measures taken to achieve this end do not penalize him in circumstances where his own personal driving performance is unimpaired.
ATTITUDES TOWARD ALCOHOL AS REFLECTED
IN UNITED STATES FOLKLORE
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, ATTITUDES ,ALCOHOL, FOLKLORE, UNITED STATES
Alcohol and traffic safety is above all a social problem. Disregarding any contention that society and culture are super-organic, a society is made up of people, or a “folk.” What better way do we have of penetrating their attitudes than to study their lore, the body of jest and song and riddle and tale, which is spoken and not written, subject to no legislation, changing as quickly as attitudes change, and enculturated long before a child learns to read and write? The drinking driver certainly merits total war—and no weapon may be neglected.
BIOCHEMISCHE UNTERSUCHUNGEN UBER DIE
AETHYLALKOHOL-ACETALDEHYD IN DER HIRNRINDE
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,BIOCHEMISCHE,UMWANDLUNG,AETHYLALKOHOL-ACETALDEHYDHIRNRINDE
Die dargestellten Untersuchungen, deren Ergebnisse von der Anwesenheit einer Alkoholdehydrogenase im Gehirn zeugen, bezweckten einerseits—die Aktivitat dieses Enzyms festzustellen, und anderseits zu untersuchen, unter welchen Bedingungen die Wirkung dieses Enzyms erfolgt. Aus den bisher festgestellten Eigenschaften der Alkoholdehadrogenase geht hervor, dass unter den entsprechenden Bedingungen dieses Enzym eine Reduktion von Acetaldehyd zu Aethylalkohol bewirkt, wobei die Reaktion in dieser Richtung wesentlich schneller vor sich geht als in entgegensetzter Richtung/ Theorell u. Bonnichsen, 1951/. Dies ist vor alien Dingen dann von besonderer Bedeutung, wenn die zu untersuchende Enzymmenge besonders gering ist. Aus diesem Grunde auch betrifft der grosste Teil der hier dargestellten Untersuchungen die in Homogenaten von Hirngewebe vorkommende enzymatische Umwandlung von Acetaldehyd zu Aethylalkohol. Die Quantitat des in der Folge der Umwandlung entstandenen Aethylalkohols
wurde mit Hilfe der enzymatischen ADH-Methode festgestellt/Biicher u. Redetzki, 1951/.
CHEMICAL TEST LAW IN THE UNITED STATES
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, CHEMICAL TEST LAW, American Medical Association’s Committee, UNITED STATES
It was in the 1930’s that a number of medical men and other scientists in this country became intensely interested in the problem of the drinking driver upon our highways and the use of chemical tests to determine alcoholic influence as one of the means of coping with it. They conducted hundreds of experiments to find out exactly what effects the ingestion of alcohol has upon the body and mental faculties. Some of these scientists also conducted research projects to develop and test various techniques of measuring blood-alcohol concentrations in human beings and to determine what effects measured levels of blood-alcohol have upon the individual. Most of these men were or became members of the American Medical Association’s Committee on Medicolegal Problems an d /o r the National Safety Council’s Committee on Tests for Intoxication.
CHEMICAL TESTS FOR ALCOHOL
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,CHEMICAL TESTS,ALCOHOL, gas chromatographic method
By using time proven methods, we are able today to determine alcohol in biological materials with an accuracy well within biological limitations. The methods of choice are first that of Widmark, or its modifications by Vidic or Griiner, and next the ADH method. These methods are reliable for routine tests in long series, and they are capable of the greatest attainable exactness if they are under control in the hands of trained laboratory personnel. Automation of these methods, as well as the perfection of a noncomplicated gas chromatographic method adaptable to routine work, may be expected in the next few years. At present no single automated or gas chromatographic method can be accepted in routine forensic practice. With blood-alcohol tests it is impossible, as in all biological tests, to attain an absolute exactness as has been stated by various authors.
COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY—A TOOL FOR
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION EXCHANGE, USA
Today we find computers running elevators, running power complexes, mixing cakes and cookies, brewing beer, and certainly contributing fantastically to advances in physical sciences such as chemistry and physics. I am not at all sure that the impact of the computer on the alcohol field has been anywhere near what it should be. I have done my little bit to try to bring its impact to bear on the field and it is to these points tha t I will now address myself.
DEXTRO-AMPHETAMINE, ALCOHOL, AND
DEXTRO-AMPHETAMINE-ALCOHOL COMBINATION AND MENTAL PERFORMANCE
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,DEXTRO-AMPHETAMINE, ALCOHOL,
DEXTRO-AMPHETAMINE-ALCOHOL, MENTAL PERFORMANCE, USA
The ability of alcohol to impair mental performance is universally recognized. It is also well established that caffeine and dextroamphetamine are capable of effecting an improvement in performance of simple mental tasks. Antagonism of the behavioral depressant action of alcohol by these central stimulants might reasonably be anticipated. In a previous study from our laboratory, however, caffeine did not counteract alcohol-induced impairment of mental performance in humans. Furthermore, this drug enhances the impairment by alcohol of choice-discriminating capabilities in animals. In view of these findings, it was of interest to us to investigate how the combination of the more potent stimulant, d-amphetamine, and alcohol may alter mental performance.
DIE REALISATION EINES ANTIALKOHOLISCHEN PROGRAMME DER STRASSENVERKEHRSSICHERHEIT IN POLEN
DIE REALISATION EINES ANTIALKOHOLISCHEN PROGRAMME, drink driving, blood-alcohol concentration,injuries, Poland
In cases of reasonable suspicion that the driver is under the influence of alcohol or drunk, he is required by law to submit to having a blood sample taken for establishing his blood-alcohol concentration. During the past four years the number of traffic accidents associated with drinking drivers has decreased from 19% in 1961 to 15% in 1964. The number of body injuries and deaths has stabilized
DOSAGE DE L’ALCOOL DANS L’HALEINE
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,Breathalyzer, blood analysis, DOSAGE DE L’ALCOOL DANS L’HALEINE
It is quite good to analyze a drunken person by two different methods, and the law of Switzerland says that you can take the Breathalyzer as a preliminary method. If it is negative, that is fine. If it is positive, the individual must undergo blood analysis. If he doesn’t want to submit himself to the blood test, the Breathalyzer results will be evidence in court. If he is willing to give the blood sample, the sample is taken and analyzed by two completely different methods. The results of these two methods will be evidence in court.
DOSE RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP OF
ETHANOL AND AUTOMOBILE DRIVING
DOSE RESPONSE, ETHANOL, AUTOMOBILE DRIVING, Canada
The subjects selected for this study were nine recent graduates of a police training program. They ranged in age from 21 to 29 years. All were physically fit and average automobile drivers. They were informed that this study was to determine the effect of alcohol on driving ability, that it was not a party, and that once they had accepted the assignment they were expected to see it to its completion. They were told it would be hard work, boring, tedious, repetitive, and that it was necessary.
DRINKING AND DRIVING IN A COMMUNITY SETTING
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,traffic violators, COMMUNITY SETTING, USA
Studies of the drinking driver have heretofore examined traffic violators or accidents. In any case, the sample has been drawn from a population defined by some aspect of driving, not a simple population sample. This paper is a study of drinking and driving in a j randomly drawn sample of 153 families com- ’ prising 321 individuals from a small middle Atlantic city. Each member of high school age and older of these families was given a questionnaire on their attitudes and behavior with respect to drinking. Some items on driving were also included.
EFFECT OF D-AMPHETAMINE AND ALCOHOL ON ATTENTIVE MOTOR PERFORMANCE
IN HUMAN SUBJECTS
Traffic safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, D-AMPHETAMINE, MOTOR PERFORMANCE,
,HUMAN SUBJECTS, USA
We have shown that the attentive motor performance of human subjects is heightened by d-amphetamine to the point of improving the performance of simple tasks by those receiving alcohol. However, in situations of stress where the relief of fatigue or boredom is not enough to initiate an improved performance, d-amphetamine fails to show its effect on those subjects depressed by alcohol. D-amphetamine is not an effective means of improving one’s driving skills while under the influence of alcohol.
EFFECTS OF ACUTE ETHANOL INTOXICATION
IN THE DOG
ETHANOL INTOXICATION, Dog, Pentobarbital, saline control group, USA
Ethanol was infused at the rate of 1.25 gm./kg/hr in seven dogs until death. Blood samples were drawn at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, and hourly intervals thereafter for the above determinations. Blood pressure and electrocardiogram were monitored continuously. The results were compared with those of two other groups of four dogs each in which sodium pentobarbital or normal saline was infused. Pentobarbital was administered at the rate of 15 mg/kg/hr until death. Normal saline was likewise continuously infused for five hours in the saline control group.