Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 03rd_T1962_London
A STATISTICALLY-PLANNED COMPARISON OF
BLOOD AND BREATH ALCOHOL LEVELS
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, BREATH ALCOHOL LEVELS, Breathalyzer, UK
A trial of the Breathalyzer and bags has been carried out to establish the correlation between alcohol levels in the blood and in three types of breath samples— samples collected directly into the Breathalyzer, samples collected in the plastic bags and analysed immediately and, thirdly, bag samples which had been stored for 24 hours before analysis. Urine was also collected and analysed.
ACTION OF ALCOHOL ON VISUAL AND
RETINAL RESPONSES TO
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, VISUAL,
This paper is divided into two parts. In the first part we describe some of our psychophysical observations on the visual effects of alcohol. In the second we discuss electrophysiological records of the drug’s action on the human retina, and indicate correlations between the sensory and physiological data.
ALCOHOL AND DRIVING—THE PHARMACOLOGICAL BACKGROUND
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,PHARMACOLOGICAL, blood alcohol level, medico-legal
It is clear that at a given blood alcohol level the habitual heavy drinker will give less objective evidence of impairment of function than the occasional light drinker. But matters are not quite so simple. In practice, as Goldberg (1951) has pointed out, not only is the heavy drinker capable of taking much more drink without vomiting, but he increases his intake to the point at which he obtains the full effect of alcohol. This is what he has been seeking. After all, people do not drink to obtain a given blood level but to achieve euphoria. Much confusion in medico-legal practice would be avoided if this simple fact were more often kept in mind.
ALCOHOL AND HIGHWAY ACCIDENTS
Traffic safety, ALCOHOL ,HIGHWAY ACCIDENTS, habitforming drugs, injury
Alcohol impairs the relationship of man both with his environment and with himself. It has properties “intermediate between the addiction-producing and habitforming drugs” .1 It is simple in chemical structure, easy to produce, and has been one of the longest and most widely employed of the pharmacologically active compounds. It is woven deeply into the fabric of modern life. It relates, as a result, in many ways to the use of the powered equipment on which we increasingly depend, and which must be tightly and wisely controlled lest damage and injury result.
ALCOHOL AND ROAD ACCIDENTS IN SICILY
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,Italian Society of Legal Medicine and Insurance
The National Congress of the Italian Society of Legal Medicine and Insurance, which was held at Florence in 1959, recommended unanimously that all chemical and analytical tests should be carried out at properly organized and equipped institutes. The objections to the introduction of compulsory blood tests on grounds of the infringement of personal liberty cannot be sustained in the face of other compulsory prophylactic medical procedures, e.g. against infectious diseases, which are accepted by the community. Many other countries have introduced compulsory blood tests and have established fixed concentrations beyond which conviction is automatic or guilt is presumed.
ALCOHOL AND ROAD TRAFFIC: AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF THE DISCUSSIONS
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, INTERNATIONAL SURVEY,
The research in to the causes of road accidents puts alcohol high on the list, although the role of alcohol appears to be a limited one in officially-published reports on road accidents. Generally it seems that only a few per cent of the total number of road accidents are ascribed to the effects of alcohol. Even though most countries acknowledge that drivers under the influence of drink are a cause of traffic accidents, this does not mean that one can readily determine the role of alcohol in the cause of road accidents in official statistics.
ALCOHOL AND ROAD TRAFFIC: THE ENGLISH LAW AND ITS REFORM BACKGROUND
TO THE PRESENT LEGISLATION
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,NGLISH LAW, UK
English legislation relating to alcohol and road traffic began with the Licensing Act, 1872, S. 12, which provided: “Every person . . . who is drunk while in charge on any highway or other public place of any carriage, horse, cattle, or steam engine . . . may be apprehended, and shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding forty shillings, or in the discretion of the court to imprisonment . . . for any term not exceeding one month.
ALCOHOL, ROAD TRAFFIC, AND DRUGS IN DENMARK, 1960
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, ALCOHOL, ROAD TRAFFIC,DRUGS,DENMARK
The average blood alcohol concentration of the 63 chronic consumers of meprobamate was found to be 1-50 promille. In the age class 31-45 years 18 chronic meprobamate consumers were found to be “slightly under the influence of alcohol” at the medico-legal examination. Their average blood alcohol concentration was determined to 1-46 promille, whereas the average of a control group was determined to 1 -49 promille. This control group consisted of 109 consecutive cases from the age class 31-45 years, without drugconsumption, and all found to be “slightly under the influence of alcohol” .
ALKOHOL UND VERKEHR IN ITALIEN
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, drunkenness, intoxication, blood tests, Italy
After a short discussion of the statistical traffic and road accidents, the author tackles surveys made over recent years in respect of the problem of “alcohol and traffic in Italy .He lists all the definitions of the penal code and road traffic ordinances for “drunkenness” and describes the legal and practical reasons preventing the introduction in Italy of systematic blood alcohol tests as an assessment of intoxication. The most significant reason for bidding blood tests apart from special instances lies in the wording of Article 13 of the Italian Constitution. In the final part of his paper, the author reiterates the most significant legal pronouncements on drunkenness at the wheel; the uncertainty here with regard to the concept of “alcoholic intoxication” is most striking, and with it is seen a tendency to accept the behaviour of the driver as proof or diagnosis of drunkenness, and so to view blood tests as inessential.
STRASSENVERKEHR IN JUGOSLAWIEN
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,Yugoslavia
Some special characteristics of motor traffic in Yugoslavia dictate various measures to be taken. These characteristics are represented by a sudden increase of the vehicles on the road, by an unequal density of traffic and by unequal spread of motor vehicles in various parts of the State. These circumstances explain why such a great proportion of the country’s road accidents, i.e. 23% with 21% injured persons and 18% fatalities, occur in a small territory of Yugoslavia, i.e. the People’s Republic of Slovenia, which has only 8-5% inhabitants and represents 7-9% of the territory of Yugoslavia. The problem of alcoholism in traffic differs in different parts of the country, and is investigated in various ways.
AN ANALYSIS OF 10,000 BLOOD TESTS IN THE NETHERLANDS
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, alcoholic intoxication, legislation
in the Netherlands, as is the case in most other countries, there are legal regulations providing that a person, driving a motor vehicle or a bicycle on a public road under such influence of liquor that he cannot be considered capable of driving properly, is guilty of a criminal offence. A further definition of the obvious punishable state of alcoholic intoxication, or of the manner in which this is to be established by the police or by experts is lacking in our legislation, the observations of the police and the contents of the police-record forming the main evidence.
APPLICATION OF SWEDISH LAW CONCERNING ALCOHOL AND TRAFFIC
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, ALCOHOL,TRAFFIC, Sweden
The question of alcohol and traffic may be illuminated from many different points of view. It may be considered purely from the point of view of traffic safety, from that of temperance policy, and in the light of social considerations; but the question has also a more legal aspect. It is rather from this last-mentioned point of view that I shall here give an account of the statutes regulating alcohol and traffic in Sweden and of the way in which these are applied in practice.
AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS, SUICIDE AND ALCOHOLISM
Road safety, drink driving, AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS, SUICIDE, ALCOHOLISM
Suicide or attempted suicide is usually considered in terms of conscious and overt self-destructive action. However, data introduced in this paper suggests that many persons with self-destructive inclinations may attempt to destroy or injure themselves through automobile accidents, and that these accidents are rarely perceived as suicidal attempts by either the driver or the public.
BLOOD SOURCE AND ALCOHOL LEVEL;
ERRORS FROM USING VENOUS BLOOD DURING ACTIVE ABSORPTION
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, BLOOD SOURCE,ALCOHOL LEVEL,VENOUS BLOOD , ACTIVE ABSORPTION, USA
The data which I have presented seem to indicate that, for estimating the level of alcohol in arterial blood and brain during the period of active absorption, the body material of first choice is rebreathed air, and presumably alveolar air, with fingertip blood a close second choice; that third place, which is far behind second, goes to cubital vein blood and hand vein blood; and that away in last place is blood from the foot or toe. When they learn the facts about blood alcohol variations during active absorption, drivers charged with intoxication, who have imbibed recently, will perhaps then settle for nothing but pedal blood.
BLOOD TESTS AND THE OFFENCE OF DRIVING WHEN UNFIT THROUGH DRINK
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, BLOOD TESTS, UNFIT THROUGH DRINK, UK
The emphasis on the deterrence which a scientific blood test may have is of the greatest interest, because the primary purpose of the criminal law is not so much to punish the guilty as it is to deter others from doing an anti-social act which they may otherwise be tempted to commit. Therefore if a man is tempted to take “one for the road” , then if he knows that in case of an accident it will be possible to prove how much alcohol he has consumed, he will probably resist the temptation.
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, BREATH ALCOHOL ANALYSIS, ionization detector, UK
While we were developing this work it was suggested to me that it might be useful to consider the various types of detector used in gas chromatography for detecting vapours and gases at the end of a column. From the review by Dr. Lovelock it seemed to me that the flame ionization detector was the device of choice, so I was interested to hear that Dr. Lester and others have come to the same conclusion. In this detector a hydrogen flame is used which normally has very low conductivity. When any combustible compound is fed into or round the flame, ions are produced in large numbers, and the conductivity rises by a factor of several thousand. The great advantages of the device are that it is relatively insensitive to water vapour and CO2, which are the principal constituents of breath, and also to the oxygen content of the air, which of course is diminished in breath.
DETECTOR TUBES FOR ANALYSIS OF
ALCOHOL IN BREATH
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, DETECTOR TUBES, ALCOHOL, BREATH
The method of measuring alcohol concentration in breath by means of this detector tube is very simple in its operation, and always produces a high degree of accuracy in spite of simplicity. The maximum tolerance of 10% is easily attainable in the range of OT-1 -0 mg./litre. Moreover, the used tubes can be safely preserved as evidence.
DIE BESONDERE BEDEUTUNG DER
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, medico-psychological, blood alcohol, Germany
This paper is intended first and foremost to deal with these limit concentrations (about 0-8-1 *2 promille), for they are of special significance both from the legal and the medico-psychological standpoint. It is just these blood alcohol values which—and this is a matter of experience rather than approximation—are to blame for dangerous driving deaths, and which in their effect on a man’s state of mind are the pre-requisite condition for a very special physical and psychical pattern of behaviour. I have at my disposal the results of test series which confirm this last statement.
DIE PERSONLICHKEIT ALKOHOLBEEINFLUSSTER VERKEHRSTEILNEHMER
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents, intoxication
Seven hundred and fifty persons died in traffic accidents in Karlsruhe district between October 1957 and August 1962. Of these 274 (36-5%) were caused by alcohol. In 24-1% of these the person who had been killed was intoxicated. In 7-6% the driver survived and was intoxicated, and in 4-8% both the surviving driver and the person who was killed were intoxicated. A number of fatal accidents could not be included in this series, either because the cause of the accident was not established (e.g. “hit-and-run” cases) or because the persons involved died some time after the accident.
DIE PLATEAUBILDUNG (GREHANT) IN
Road safety, drink driving, road traffic accidents,Alcohol absorption studies
Alcohol absorption studies concerning the question of levelling-out are reported. These experiments were carried out with diluted alcohol (beer) and concentrated alcohol (spirits), as well as with persons of varying bodily sizes (physical weight) with a constant constitution (r-factor). The results indicate that, with the consumption of beer, levelling-out occurs when the normal rate of drinking—about 4 glasses of beer per hour—is clearly exceeded, i.e. when about twice this amount per hour is consumed. The level attained depends on the fact that, as a result of the large quantity of liquid, absorption takes place only at the periphery of the liquid, and this continues in proportion to the absorption of the liquid itself.