Conference Proceedings and Papers

Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.

 

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Search results for: 02nd_T1953_Toronto
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02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
A Claims Manager’s View of Alcohol and Road Traffic
Author/s
WALTER JENNINGS
Year Published
1953
Keywords
traffic accidents, drink driving, injury, Claims Manager, Canada
Description / summary
In automobile accidents alone an average year will see $65,000,000 in losses in which some 2,700 are killed. On an average in Canada one person is . killed in an automobile accident every four hours, another is injured every fifteen minutes and damage is done to property every two minutes.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
An Aerometric Method for Quickly Estimating and Identifying Ethanol in Aqueous Fluids
Author/s
R. N. HARGER
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents, Aerometric Method, Ethanol, Aqueous Fluids, USA
Description / summary
Ethyl alcohol in aqueous solutions obeys Henry’s law except in concentrations above about 25 per cent. This means that at a given temperature the concentration of alcohol in the liquid phase 'bears a constant ratio to the alcohol concentration of air equilibrated with the liquid for all aqueous solutions containing less than 25 per cent alcohol.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Blood Alcohol Levels in Hospitalized Victims of Traffic Accidents
Author/s
K. B. BJERVER, L. GOLDBERG and P. LINDA
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents, Blood Alcohol Levels, Hospitalized Victims, Traffic Accidents, Sweden
Description / summary
One phase of the action of alcohol in our modern society is its possible role as a causative agent in traffic accidents. This problem may be attacked by ascertaining the presence or absence of alcohol in the breath, blood or other body fluids after traffic ^accidents, and by establishing whether the incidence of cases with alcohol present is higher than the incidence of individuals with alcohol in nonaccident cases.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Canadian Legislation Respecting Alcohol and Road Traffic
Author/s
W. B. COMMON, Q. C
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents, Legislation, Canada
Description / summary
In order to understand the system of legislation governing the liquor control and resulting law enforcement in Canada, it is necessary to deal very briefly with the division of legislative jurisdiction between the federal p a rliament and the provincial legislatures. Under our constitutional scheme, set out in the British North America Act 1867, the Dominion or Federal authority has legislative jurisdiction over the manufacture of potable and nonpotable spirits, including such matters as importation, exportation, customs and excise duties and health specifications with respect to such spirits.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Chemical Tests in Appeal Cases
Author/s
DAVID LESTER, LEON A. GREENBERG and GEORGE R. TIERNAN
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents, Chemical Tests,Appeal Cases, under the influence, intoxicating alcoholic beverages, USA
Description / summary
We have examined the disposition of cases under Connecticut Statute 2412 in the County of New Haven, State of Connecticut, for a three and one-third year period. Statute 2412 is that section of Connecticut law under which a charge of driving a motor vehicle under the influence of intoxicating alcoholic beverages or other drugs is brought. The cases examined are those which have been before the Court of Common Pleas of New Haven County, which is the first court in which a record is kept of the proceedings.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Comparative Enforcement in Great Britain
Author/s
CECIL HEATH
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents, Comparative Enforcement,Great Britain
Description / summary
there is a growing consensus of opinion amongst doctors and police authorities that a chemical test is inevitable and a compromise is suggested that, as an experiment, it should be on a voluntary basis, it being understood that a refusal by the accused to submit to such a test would have to be revealed when the case came before the Court. The volume of evidence which is being built up in other countries regarding the efficiency of these chemical tests cannot be without influence on authoritative opinion in Britain.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Containers for Breath Samples for Alcohol Analysis
Author/s
W. KALOW, G. H. W. LUCAS and J. D. McCOLL
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents,Containers, Breath Samples, Alcohol Analysis, Canada
Description / summary
This communication is concerned with an experience gained during the recent study in Toronto on Alcohol and Road Traffic, which involved the collection and the analysis for alcohol of approximately 2,500 breath samples taken from drivers of motor cars. Since roughly 80% of the samples were furnished voluntarily on the request of a Police Officer by drivers not involved in that accident (“nonaccident drivers”) but stopped at random near the scene of the motor car accident in question, the method of sampling was devised to minimize any inconvenience to “non-accident drivers” and to provide adequate protection against the loss of alcohol from the breath sample container.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Drunken Drivers in Sweden
Author/s
LEONARD GOLDBERG
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents, Sweden
Description / summary
In 1949 a Swedish Governmental Committee was appointed in order to study the problem of alcohol and motor vehicle traffic. The committee was assigned to review the existing legislation and its effect and to carry out those investigations or surveys, which might be necessary to elucidate the questions in study.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Educational Procedures in the United States
Author/s
HERMAN A. HEISE
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Educational Procedures, fatal traffic accidents, drink driving, injury, United States
Description / summary
In 1931 the State of Pennsylvania reported that about 1% of fatal traffic accidents occurred as a result of drinking. At about the same time I made a survey involving the study of more than 100 consecutive accidents involving injury or death. This survey revealed that aldohol was involved in half of the accidents and that one-third of the responsible individuals were definitely under the in fluence of alcohol. Since then other surveys have shown similar results indicating vast discrepancy between statistics based on opinion and facts revealed by scientific chemical tests.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Experimental Approach to the Correlation of Blood Alcohol Concentration and Intoxication
Author/s
HENRY W. NEWMAN
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents,Experimental Approach, Blood Alcohol Concentration, Intoxication, USA
Description / summary
In attempting to correlate blood alcohol concentration with intoxication,
we should keep continually in mind what our actual objective is. This must be, for those of us interested in the relationship of alcohol and traffic, an appraisal of the degree to which a certain blood alcohol concentration interferes with safe driving.
It follows that the tests chosen for experiments in this field should have as close a relation to the actual operation of a motor vehicle in traffic as it is possible to achieve.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Individual Variation in Tolerance to Alcohol
Author/s
HENRY W. NEWMAN
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents, Tolerance ,Alcohol, USA
Description / summary
The variation in inherent tolerance to alcohol is apparent in all the welldocumented attempts to correlate the alcohol content of body fluids with drunkenness, although it is often neglected in a discussion of the results in favor of emphasis on the undeniable correlation which exists in a majority of instances between alcohol concentration and inebriation.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Introduction to second international Conference on ALCOHOL and ROAD TRAFFIC
Author/s
MACKINNON PHILLIPS
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Traffic safety, alcohol, Road Traffic, drink driving, Toronto
Description / summary
The decision to hold the Second International Conference on Alcohol and Road Traffic in Toronto in September, 1953, was welcomed throughout the Province of Ontario by all of us who are interested in the many difficulties created by alcohol, especially where road safety is concerned. Problems which stem from the drinking of alcohol are not local problems by any means, but are of world-wide concern.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Keynote Address
Author/s
J. K. W. FERGUSON
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Traffic safety, alcohol, Road Traffic, drink driving, legislation, road accidents
Description / summary
It seems appropriate to start our deliberations by looking back to the discussions of the First International Conference on Alcohol and Road Traffic which was held three years ago in Stockholm.The first section of the proceedings of the First International Conference contains a number of brief descriptions of legislation and measures of enforcement and education in peration in some 23 countries. These summaries give an indication of the gravity of the problem in each country; or more correctly, the gravity with which the problem is viewed in official circles in each country.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Observations Incidental to Alcohol Intoxication Tests
Author/s
RALPH F. TURNER
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents, Observations Incidental , Alcohol Intoxication Tests, USA
Description / summary
The recommended Uniform Vehicle Code delineates three zones of blood alcohol concentration for the guidance of law enforcement officials: i.e., 0.00- 0.05% safe; 0.05-0.15% questionable; above 0.15%, definitely under the in fluence. As a result of the work described in this paper, it is recommended that the lines of demarcation be amplified in the following manner: 0.00-0.05% safe; 0.05-0.10% possibly under the influence; 0.10-0.15% probably under the influence; above 0.15% definitely under the influence.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Procedure in Denmark for Dealing with Drinking Drivers
Author/s
E. LUNDSGAARD
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents,blood alcohol concentration, Denmark
Description / summary
From a biological point of view there is no fundamental difference between an alcohol concentration in the blood of 1.05 0/00 and one of 0.95 0/00, but there is a fundamental difference between being sentenced to imprisonment and loss of licence and being acquitted.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Procedures of the National Safety Council Relating to Alcohol and Road Traffic
Author/s
EARL F. CAMPBELL
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Procedures, National Safety Council,Alcohol, Road Traffic
Description / summary
The Committee on Tests for Intoxication was formed at the 1936 National
Safety Congress. Originally, there were 20 committee members, and of these 20 original members, it is remarkable that after 17 years six are still actively serving. Three of these men will appear on the program of the Second International Conference on Alcohol and Road Traffic.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Psychological Tests and Blood Alcohol Levels
Author/s
M. GRACE EGGLETON
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents, Psychological Tests,Blood Alcohol Levels, UK
Description / summary
The effect of alcohol on the central nervous system can be, and has been, used as a means of investigating the properties of the latter. This assembly is, however, mainly concerned with one aspect of such researches, namely how alcohol is likely to affect the re actions of drivers on the road and whether a knowledge of the blood alcohol concentration can be used as a sure guide to the state of the central nervous system.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Punishment and Propaganda as Preventive Factors in Drinking and Driving
Author/s
YRJO SIMILA
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents, Punishment,Preventive Factors, Finland
Description / summary
In considering the severity of punishment as a preventive factor in cases of drunken driving it has to be observed that only severe punishments impress irresponsible individuals. Yet otherwise considerate drivers who are not exactly teetotallers might be more impressed by vigorous propaganda for absolutely sober driving.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Quantitative Studies of the Relationship Between Alcohol Levels and Motor Vehicle Accidents
Author/s
GEORGE H. W. LUCAS,W. KALOW,J. D. McCOLL,B. A. GRIFFITH,H. WARD SMITH
Year Published
1953
Keywords
Drink driving, traffic safety, road accidents,Alcohol Levels, Motor Vehicle Accidents, Canada
Description / summary
It is a generally accepted fact that ingested alcohol may so affect the brain of a motor car operator as to impair his ability to drive safely. Few of us here to-day would willingly be driven about in present day traffic by a driver obviously intoxicated. Since the motor car accident rate, attended with greater loss of life and property, has increased alarmingly in various countries of the world with greater use of motor vehicles, it has become essential to inaugurate world-wide investigations on the influence of some factors contributing to motor car accidents; the results of these investigations are reported and discussed in meetings such as we are attending to-day.
Category
02nd_T1953_Toronto
Paper Title
Recent Developments in the Constitutionality of Chemical Testing in the United States
Author/s
DAVID GEETING MONROE
Year Published
1953
Keywords
chemical tests ,alcoholic intoxication, Constitutionality, United States
Description / summary
Use of chemical tests in the recognition and control of alcoholic intoxication in the United States is progressing. Chemical tests are now being used in 369 of the 1,224 (onethird) municipalities with population of 10,000 or over. Of the state agencies, tests are now used by 28 of the 48 (about 60%). About one-third of the agencies use blood tests exclusively; about a third, breath tests exclusively; about one-tenth urinalysis, exclusively.