Conference Proceedings and Papers
Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.
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Search results for: 01st_T1950_Sweden
A Few Facts about the Work of the Copenhagen Police in the Fight against Intoxication at the Wheel
Drink driving, road safety, under the influence of drink, accidents, intoxication, Copenhagen
The penalties for driving whilst under the influence of drink are very severe in Denmark. On the wohle, we may say that all offenders are liable to a term of imprisonment. Here the sceptic will enquire whether we really need to indulge in such a veritable bloodbath of drunken drivers, when we all admit that they are not responsible for such a great number of accidents; he will ask whether the numerous sentences have been any help at all, to such an extent that the wholesale preventive action may be said to have taken effect.
About Withdrawal of Driving Licenses
Traffic safety, drink driving, prevention, Withdrawal, Driving Licenses, Norway
The most important task of the police in all fields is prevention. The prosecution and the sentence themselves are of less importance. The withdrawal of driving licences is just a kind of prevention, not punishment. Therefore it is appropriate that the police should be invested with this authority.
Accident Contribution of Drivers as a Function of their Blood Alcohol Levels
Road safety, motor vehicle accidents, road accident,Blood Alcohol Levels, Canada
This preliminary report presents some data drawn from a study of the relative importance of the various factors involved in traffic accidents. The 919 drivers currently being studied, comprise 9 3% of those involved in personal-injury motor vehicle accidents in the city of Toronto during the period May i 7 to August x7,1950.
ALCOH OL AND TRAFFIC
The Belgian Situation from the Legal
Point of View.
Drink driving, TRAFFIC safety, traffic accidents, Belgium
As for Belgian statistics pertaining to drunken driving they are perfectly reliable. However, they should not be taken at face value, as it is vey difficult to isolate drunkenness as sole cause of an accident.
Alcohol,Road Accidents, safe driving, under the influence of alcohol, Sweden
It has often been stated that of all the numerous accidents that happen yearly quite a number of them are connected with people under the influence of alcohol. At the Insurance Company Samarbete (Folksam) where more than a million people are insured against accidents happening when off work, an investigation has begun in order to find out what effect a person can have on the frequency of accidents when under the influence of alcohol.
Drink driving, Alcohol, Traffic safety, road transport, South Africa
The question of the effects of the consumption of alcohol on the safety of the roads is no new one but one which evidently increases in importance year by year owing to the ever-growing volume of road transport. To all, whether they are interested in the question of the use and abuse of alcohol or not, the safety of road travel is of very great importance. The writer, who has practised as a medical practitioner in South Africa for fifty years, will naturally confine his remarks chiefly to the medical aspects of this question and to the South African picture.
Alcohol and Traffic Problems in Norway — the Medico-Legal Aspect
Traffic safety, drink driving, alcohol, ,Traffic Problems, Medico-Legal,Norway
Norwegian legislation has chosen a radical and rather unusual solution to the problem of alcohol and traffic. It is unlawfull to drive a car while under the influence of alcohol, and any person who can be shown to have more than 0.50 per mille of alcohol in his lood, is considered as not sober in the meaning of the law. Furthermore the blood test is in principle obligatory. This law is in many ways rather unique even in Norway, and it may need some explanation why this radical solution has been chosen, and how is has been possible to make the people and the courts accept it.
Alcohol and Traffic-safety Legislation in Norway
Traffic safety, drink driving, alcohol, legislation, road accidents, Norway
In earlier times, it was almost exclusively the more severe forms of the effects of alcohol which interested legislators. However, the rapid development of technics and traffic, and the increased demand for precision thus brought about, have made it more obvious that the milder forms of the influence of alcohol may also be of considerable significance. So, in our country also, in recent years, a number of legal provisions have been brought in, which increase the demands made on those who form a part of the traffic, or who carry out traffic activity, as regards their relationship to alcohol.
Alcohol as a Factor in Road Accidents
Alcohol,Road Accidents, safe driving, Great Britin
In the pre-motor age a driver or rider who was under the influence of drink had frequently to thank the intelligence of his horse for taking him home safe and sound. To-day the motor vehicle, although it can provide greater speed and tractive power, is entirely dependent on the control of the driver. If that is weakened there is no equine intelligence to compensate for that loss, and the soulless machine which can be a completely obedient servant of the human intelligence becomes a blind monster of destruction. Therefore, safe driving demands a human control of sure judgment in complete command.
Drink driving, TRAFFIC safety, Alcoholism,traffic accidents, Spain
By means of the law of the 9th May 1950 the people of Spain have taken adequate measures against automobile delinquency, which in Spain as in most other countries has shown steady increase. This law, on the use of motor vehicles in traffic, is only one of a great many penal laws in connection with automobilism. It follows the same tendency as the Swedish law of the 13th June 1941, the English Road Traffic Law of 1940, the Norwegian law o f 1926, the Danish law of 1925, chapter 144 of the Virginian legislation, etc. W e find it most praiseworthy and absolutely necessary for social security.
Drink driving, TRAFFIC safety, Alcoholism,traffic accidents, Belgium
The problems of alcoholism connected with car-driving have become particularly acute in Belgium since the last war. They result not only from the considerable increase in the numbers of cars on the roads, but also and mainly from the tremendous changes in the distribution of wealth, which means that cars are now owned by more and more people from social groups, where the sense of responsibilities, especially in connection with the driving of a fast car, is not always sufficiently developed.
Determination of Ethyl Alcohol by Cristallized Alcohol Dehydrogenase
A Comparison with the Widmark method
drink driving, Ethyl Alcohol, Alcohol Dehydrogenase, Widmark method, Sweden
An enzymatic micro method of specifically determining small amounts of ethyl alcohol by means of crystallized alcohol dehydrogenase (AD H ), prepared by Bonnichsen and Theorell (1950, in press), is described. In a number of experiments blood samples withdrawn from intoxicated individuals and presumtive ’drunken drivers” were analyzed parallely by the Widmark micro method, determining volatile, reducing substances by reduction of dichromate sulphuric acid, and by the enzymatic ADH method. A complete agreement was found,thus confirming the medico-legal use ot the Widmark method in cases of ’’drunken driving” . In blood and urine samples, taken post mortem among others from cases having been in water for some time, the x-esults with the ADH method seemed to be more
specific than those with the Widmark method. The experiments are being continued.
Effect of Alcohol Ingestion on Driving Ability. Results of Practical Road Tests and Laboraty Experiments
Alcohol Ingestion, Driving Ability, Road Tests, alcohol concentration, Laboraty Experiments, Sweden
The role that alcohol plays in causing traffic accidents is probably considerably greater than appears from official statistics, and its action as a causative factor in traffic accidents begins at a lower alcohol value in the blood than has previously been considered. The threshold of impairment of driving ability in expert drivers accustomed to consuming moderate amounts of alcohol is an alcohol concentration of 0.35 to 0.40 per mil (0.035 to 0.04 per cent) in the blood.
Estimation of the Level of Blood Alcohol from Analysis of Breath
Drink driving,Blood Alcohol, Breath Analysis,drunkometer procedure, USA
Alcohol analyses of simultaneous samples of blood and alveolar air from
33 persons, 1 hour, and 2 hours, after drinking 0.6— 0.9 gr. of alcohol per kg.,
showed an average alveolar air : blood alcohol ratio of about 1 : 2100. Essentially
the same ratio was found for rebreathed air.Since rebreathed air contains essentially the same alcohol concentration as alveolar air, we are proposing a simplified drunkometer procedure which involves only the collection of rebreathed air in a warmed, flexible, aluminum bag, with the result calculated from the volume of breath required to decolorize the permanganate reagent.
Formation and Development of the Union
Formation, Development, drivers’ temperance, traffic safety,Finland
For the first time more general public attention was given to drivers’ temperance and to temperance in connection with traffic problems in general, when in 1936 the parole was adopted for the temperance week: total abstinence— safety of traffic. This parole could, however, not yet persuade the drivers to take any particular steps among themselves.
General Procedure of the Danish Medico-Legal Council in Cases Concerning Motor Drivers under the Influence of Alcohol
drink driving, alcohol tolerance, under the Influence of Alcohol, alcohol concentrations, Denmark
Considering the pronounced individual variation in human alcohol tolerance it must, biologically, be held wrong — and therefore probably unjust — to apply identical classifications to persons whose blood contains certain alcohol concentrations, without regard to their individual reactions to such concentrations.
Objective Proof of Alcoholic Influence
Drink driving, Under the Influence of Alcohol, pedestrians,reasonably sobe, accident, USA
The phrase ’’Under the Influence of Alcohol” has acquired a new meaning since the introduction of the motor car, especially since the complexity of traffic problem has grown. The historical definitions of inebriation have become much too liberal, because a condition that once could be termed as ’’reasonably sober” will now endanger a motor car operator’s life, as well as the lives of pedestrians and other operators. An individual might not exhibit the usual signs of intoxication such as staggering, thick tongue and incoherence of speech and thought, but still be influenced by alcohol to the extent that his inhibitions are released and he will take foolish chances that will certainly increase his likelihood of being involved in an accident.
On the Methods used by the Police-Force of Denmark on the Campaign against Intoxicated Drivers of Motor-Cars
intoxicated drivers, road safety, road acidents, Motor-Cars, Denmark
There can be no possible doubt that the campaign against intoxicated drivers of motor-cars must be carried on as forcibly as possible, as one can not overlook the fact that a certain increase in the number of such drivers has taken place during the recent years.
Alcohol,Road Accidents, Traffic Safety, Origin,Activity, traffic casualties,social problem, Sweden
After the end of the First World War motorism started in Sweden. A t the beginning of 1917 there were only about 5,7oo motor vehicles registered in the whole of the country. Fifteen years later, at the turn of the years 1931— 32, the number had increased to about 200,000. This powerful increase also caused the traffic casualties in our country to become a great social problem.
Report of The Women’s Committee of the Washington Division, American Automobile Association, on Alcohol and Traffic April 1950
Women’s Committee, Washington Division, American Automobile Association, Alcohol, Traffic safety, USA
When the Women’s Safety Committee of the American Automobile Association recognized as early as 1945 the impact of excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages on driving, as indicated in national statistical reports, they took the following successive steps toward meeting the problem of alcoholism in general, but very especially with its relation to traffic safety in mind.