Conference Proceedings and Papers

Proceedings of all the major conference have been published amounting to thousands of pages of materials which provide a history of the development of research and policy over the past five decades in alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. After many years of work and effort by both current and previous ICADTS Executive Board members, the Council is delighted to make available all available conference papers in electronic form.

 

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Recent Papers
Category
20th_T2013_Brisbane
Paper Title
A Comparison of Drug Use by Fatally Injured Drivers and Drivers at Risk
Author/s
Douglas J. Beirness, Erin E. Beasley, Paul Boase
Year Published
2013
Keywords
road safety, Drug Use, Fatally Injured Drivers, road crashes, Cannabis, Canada
Description / summary
Research has documented the prevalence of drug use among drivers involved in serious crashes. Although the overrepresentation of alcohol among drivers involved in serious crashes has been repeatedly demonstrated in numerous studies, relatively few studies have attempted to determine the magnitude of the risks posed by drivers who have used drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which drugs may present a risk to road safety by comparing the prevalence of drug use among drivers at risk and drivers who die in motor vehicle crashes. Data on alcohol and drug use from coroners’ and medical examiners’ files on drivers of motor vehicles who died in crashes were compared with data on drug use among drivers who participated in roadside surveys in British Columbia, Canada conducted between 2008 and 2012 as a means to help establish the contributory role of drugs in driver fatalities. The results show increased probability of fatal crash associated with the use of alcohol or drugs and greatly increased risks associated with the use of alcohol and drugs in combination. Alcohol remains a primary substance of concern for road safety. Cannabis also presents increased risks for drivers as does the combined use of cannabis and alcohol. These findings will contribute to program and policy initiatives to improve road safety.
Category
20th_T2013_Brisbane
Paper Title
A comparison of medicinal drugs detected in blood of suspected impaired drivers with data on the use of driving impairing medicines in The Netherlands
Author/s
Beitske Smink, Karlijn Bezemer, Rianne Vincenten, Miranda Verschraagen, Johan de Gier
Year Published
2013
Keywords
medicinal drugs, impaired drivers ,,driving impairing medicines,Medicinal opiates , The Netherlands
Description / summary
This study presents the analytical results of blood samples of suspected impaired drivers during a four year period and compares the medicinal drugs detected in the blood samples with the use of these driving impairing medicines in The Netherlands. In 2009-2012, the blood alcohol concentrations of 9047 samples have been determined and 82% of the samples tested positive. In addition, 3038 blood samples have been analyzed for drugs and in 94% of the cases drugs were detected. Medicinal drugs were detected in 33% (1010/3038) of the drug cases, including poly-medicinal drug use in 37% (370/1010) of the positive medicinal drug cases. Anxiolytics have the highest prevalence of 19% (573/3038) in the population of suspected impaired drivers. Followed by hypnotics and sedatives (13%), medicinal opiates (6.9%), antidepressants (4.5%) and antiepileptics (1.1%). The prevalences of these medicinal drug groups in the general Dutch population are about two or three times lower for anxiolytics (6.9%), hypnotics and sedatives (5.5%), and antiepileptics (0.34%), compared to suspected impaired drivers. Medicinal opiates have about the same prevalence in both populations, which could be a result of the criteria used for the categorization of these substances.
Category
20th_T2013_Brisbane
Paper Title
A follow up sample of first time drink driving offenders: How many drink drive post offence?
Author/s
Hollie Wilson, Mary Sheehan, Gavan Palk
Year Published
2013
Keywords
drink driving offenders, post offence, injury prevention, random breath testing (RBT), blood alcohol content, Australia
Description / summary
Drink driving remains an important issue to address in terms of health and injury prevention even though research shows that over time there has been a steady decline in drink driving. This has been attributed to the introduction of countermeasures such as random breath testing (RBT), changing community attitudes and norms leading to less acceptance of the behaviour and, to a lesser degree, the implementation of programs designed to deter offenders from engaging in drink driving. Most of the research to date has focused on the hard core offenders - those with high blood alcohol content at the time of arrest, and those who have more than one offence.
Category
20th_T2013_Brisbane
Paper Title
A national evaluation of graduated driver licensing laws in the United States
Author/s
James C. Fell, Eduardo Romano, and Robert B. Voas
Year Published
2013
Keywords
graduated driver licensing laws (GDL), young novice drivers, fatal crash, Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), United States
Description / summary
Graduated driver licensing (GDL) laws now exist in all 50 states and the District of Columbia in the United States. These GDL systems are designed to reduce the exposure of young novice drivers to risky situations (such as late-night driving and driving with other teen passengers when alcohol is likely to be involved). Our aims were to determine if (a) GDL laws reduce fatal crash involvements of novice drivers; (b) nighttime and passenger restrictions are effective components, especially in reducing fatal crashes involving young drinking drivers; and (b) there are differential effects of GDL laws based upon driver race and ethnicity. A longitudinal panel study and logistic regression analyses were used to meet the aims. The 1990-2007 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data sets were used to determine if changes in crash involvements of young drivers and young drinking drivers were associated with the adoption of GDL laws. GDL laws with stricter compo-nents showed stronger relationships to fatal crash reductions (from 8 to 13%), and laws with weak components showed no reductions in crash involvements. Nighttime restrictions were found to reduce 16- and 17-year-old driver involvements in nighttime fatal crashes by an estimated 10% and 16- and 17-year-old drinking drivers in nighttime fatal crashes by 13%. Passenger restrictions were found to reduce novice driver involvements in fatal crashes with teen passengers by an estimated 9%. GDL reductions were largest for young White drivers, followed by African-Americans, and then Asians, with no significant reductions for young Hispanics. States without the nighttime or passenger restrictions in their GDL laws should strongly consider adopting them. The differential effects of GDL laws based on the race and ethnicity of young drivers needs further research.
Category
20th_T2013_Brisbane
Paper Title
A new neuropsychological instrument measuring effects of age and drugs on fitness to drive: development, reliability, and validity of MedDrive
Author/s
Paul Vaucher, Etienne Pétremand, Isabel Cardoso, Janet Veldstra, Barbara Broers, Claire Bindschaedler, Jean-Marie Annoni, Patrice Mangin, Bernard Favrat
Year Published
2013
Keywords
neuropsychological instrument, fitness to drive, minor cognitive impairment (MCI), Switzerland
Description / summary
Relying on systematic reviews of neuropsychological tests and driving performances, we conceived four new computed tasks measuring: visual processing (Task1), movement attention shift (Task2), executive response, alerting and orientation gain (Task3), and spatial memory (Task4). We then planned five studies to test MedDrive's reliability and validity. Study-1 defined instructions and learning functions collecting data from 105 senior drivers attending an automobile club course. Study-2 assessed concurrent validity for detecting minor cognitive impairment (MCI) against useful field of view (UFOV) on 120 new senior drivers. Study-3 collected data from 200 healthy drivers aged 20-90 to model age related normal cognitive decline. Study-4 measured MedDrive's reliability having 21 healthy volunteers repeat tests five times. Study-5 tested MedDrive's responsiveness to alcohol in a randomised, double-blinded, placebo, crossover, dose-response validation trial including 20 young healthy volunteers.